In a non procedural language such as SQL, the set of data to be operated on is specified, but not the functions to be performed or the manner in which they are to be carried out. In a step-by-step language system, most declaration efficiency depends on previous or following statements and on control structures, such as circles or depending divisions, that are not available in SQL.

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For an illustration of the difference between step-by-step and nonprocedural ‘languages’, assume that the following SQL declaration queries the employees table:

SELECT employee_id, department_id, last_name, wage FROM employees;

The previous declaration demands details, but does not apply reasoning to the details. However, assume you want a system to determine whether each worker in the details set should get an improvement based on wage and department efficiency.

A necessary condition of an improvement is that the staff member did not receive more than three improvement in the last five years. If an improvement is called for, then the application must adjust the wage and email the manager; otherwise, the application must upgrade a report.

The issue is how step-by-step databases programs demanding requiring conditional logic and system flow management can use SQL. The basic growth approaches are as follows:

Use client-side growth to include SQL statements in programs coded in step-by-step ‘languages’ such as C, C++, or Java

You can place SQL statements in source system code and submit it to a precompiler or Java translation before collection. On the other hand, you can eliminate the precompilation step and use an API such as Java Database Connection (JDBC) or Oracle Contact User interface (OCI) to enable the application to interact with the databases.

Use server-side growth to develop details reasoning that exists in the database

A system can clearly produce saved subprograms (procedures and functions), coded in PL/SQL (pronounced P L sequel) or Java. You can also build a trigger, which is known as system unit that is held in the databases and invoked in response to a specified event.

This section explains the second approach. The principal benefit of server-side growth is that performance built into the databases can be implemented anywhere. The databases and not the application decides the best way to execute projects on a given os. Also, subprograms improve scalability by centralizing system processing on the server, enabling customers to recycling system code. Because subprogram calls are quick and efficient, a individual call can start a compute-intensive saved subprogram, reducing system traffic.

You can use the following ‘languages’ to store details reasoning in Oracle Database:


PL/SQL is the Oracle Database step-by-step extension to SQL. PL/SQL is incorporated with the databases, supporting all Oracle SQL statements, features, data types. Applications coded in databases APIs can produce PL/SQL saved subprograms and deliver PL/SQL system code prevents to the databases for efficiency.


Oracle Database also provides support for creating, storing, and implementing Java programs. Java saved subprograms run in the databases and are independent of programs that run in the middle level. Java saved subprograms interface with SQL using a similar efficiency design to PL/SQL.

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