Concrete is the most essential building material which plays a significant role in all Design Concrete Buildings. Its property is its versatility which is its ability to be molded to form any shape needed for various structural forms.
Most software follows a same hierarchy of steps in designing. The basic steps are explained here in this article.
This is the heart of structural design. When you start sketching the model, there are several options. You can either draw it in a grid or use a template.
You can also import the file from Auto-CAD and even see the supposed image of your model after creation. The following steps are done in modelling
Some of the most used materials are pre-defined in the software. The material which suits to our building is taken. For designing a concrete building, we choose concrete as the material for beams, columns and slabs. The walls could either be of masonry or concrete depending on the loads coming on the building. Other materials like steel and aluminium are also used in the construction. For the concrete section, rebar are used for reinforcement.
Other material properties are:
- Modulus of elasticity of steel, E
- Poisson’s ratio, µ
- Steel density
- Yield strength of steel, Fy
- Basic strength of concrete, Fck
- Density of concrete
Beams and columns are given length, width and depth. Slab is given thickness and the slab type is defined as membrane element which is to represent only the in-plane stiffness of the members.
To select a proper boundary condition has an important role in structural analysis. The modeling of support conditions at expansion joints and bearings require a careful consideration of continuity of each translational and rotational component of displacement.
It is natural to use simple supports for a static analysis.
The loads needed for the building are defined here. The software takes the loads according to the code IS 456:2000 which is pre-installed. The loads which are defined and applied to the building are:
- Dead load: Load on a structure due to its own weight.
- Live load: This is the load due to moving weight. The live load differs for different structure types.
- Earthquake load: This load is the total force that an earthquake can exert on a structure.
- Wind load: This is a distinct load on the structure due to the intensity of the wind.
Here the loads are applied on the sections and slab and the seismic and the wind loads are employed by software. If the wall is not included then the frame loads are put on the beams.
It’s our duty to design a safe and serviceable structure and in order to do so we must predict the magnitudes of various loads that are likely to be applied to the structure over its lifetime.
Hence to account for the probability of the simultaneous application of various load types, several load combinations are applied on the structure.
These load combinations can be created by selecting the Indian code and also with the help of auto load combinations where they are generated by the software.
The structure will be analyzed. Results from the analysis like displacements, responses, bending moment, shear forces, storey drifts can be seen on the structure. It displays results in graphical forms and also display real time-history displacements and yield reports. The deformed geometry of the building can be portrayed based on any loads or any combination of loads.
Concrete design is done as per IS 456:2000 and the steel design is done according to IS 800. After the information needed for the design is shared, the software performs the design for every structural element. The design is created, depending on the need.
Details are provided in some software, where the rebar used must be defined. The detailed components include concrete beams, columns and walls, steel framing, beam schedules, column schedules and connections.
After the structural analysis, it is created to find out the steel used for the reinforcement for columns and beams. Results from the analysis like displacements, bending moment, shear forces, storey drifts could be seen on the structure. For columns, the axial forces that come on it, the bending moment and the shear forces can be obtained.
Some important points to be considered:
- Columns must be located near the corners of a building and at the intersection of the beams. The position of columns is selected so as to lower bending moments in beams.
- Avoid large spans of beams.
- Avoid large centre-to-centre distance between columns.
- The spacing of column must be lowered considerably so that the load on column on each floor is less and the necessity of assigning large sections for columns is prevented
- Earthquake will never occur simultaneously with wind.
- The value of elastic modulus of materials, must be taken as per static analysis.
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