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Prototype Model In Software Testing 

Amongst the various models associated with software testing, the Prototype model is an important one. In this article, we will see various things related to the prototype model.

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The fundamental idea in the Prototype model is that as opposed to freezing the prerequisites before a design or coding can continue, a disposable prototype is created to comprehend the requirements. This model is created in light of the as of now known requirements. The prototype model happens to be a software development model. By utilizing this prototype model, the client can get a “genuine feel” of the actual system, as the interactions with the prototype model can allow the client to better comprehend the requirements of the desired system. Prototyping is an alluring idea for complex and extensive frameworks for which there is no manual procedure or existing system to help in deciding the requirements.

The prototypes are normally not complete systems and a large number of the details are not implicit in the model. The objective is to furnish a system with general functionality.

When is it right to use this model?

  • Prototyping guarantees that the end users continuously work with the system and give an input which is consolidated in the prototype model to bring about a usable system. They are great for designing good human computer interface systems.

  • Prototype model ought to be utilized when the desired system needs a great deal of interaction with the end users.

  • On the whole, online systems, web interfaces have a high measure of interaction with end users, are most appropriate for the Prototype model. It may take a while for a system to be constructed that permits usability and requires minimum amount of training for the end user.

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Advantages:

  • It becomes easy to identify the missing functionality.

  • User involvement is high in its development.

  • Issues can be found out at a much earlier stage.

  • Since in this methodology, a working model of the system is given, the clients get a better comprehension of the system being created.

  • Faster user feedback enables coming up with better solutions.

  • Confusing or troublesome functions can be recognized

Prerequisites validation, Quick execution of, incomplete, but functional, application.

Disadvantages:

  • On a practical basis, this strategy may increase the intricacy of the system as the scope of the system may extend past original plans.

  • Incomplete application may bring about application not to be utilized as the

full system was designed

Incomplete or insufficient problem examination.

  • Results into implementing and later repairing way of building systems.

Application of software prototyping:

Software that includes excessive amount of data handling and the vast majority of the functionality is internal with next to no UI does not for the most part benefit from prototyping. Prototype development could be an additional overhead in such projects and may require lots of additional efforts.

Software Prototyping is most helpful during development of systems with high level of user interactions, e.g. online systems. Systems which require users to fill out forms or navigate through different screens before data is handled can utilize prototyping successfully to give the correct look and feel even before the actual software is developed.

Thus we saw quite a few things regarding the prototype model.

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Characteristics of Reliability testing

Today, we will have a look at Reliabilty testing. We will try to understand the concept covering the various aspects related to it. Testing classes in Pune train students in the software testing domain. To get more details about the same, you can search for software testing courses in Pune.

Let us go ahead with reliability testing.

Reliability Testing is all about execution of an application with the goal that bugs are found and resolved before the system is deployed. The aim of reliability testing is to decide the product reliability, and to check if the software meets the customer’s reliability demands.

Characteristics of Reliability testing:

  • Reliability alludes to the consistency of a measure. A test is viewed as reliable in the event that we get a similar outcome more than once. Software Reliability is the likelihood of failure free software functioning for a predefined time-frame in a predetermined environment. Software Reliability is additionally a critical element influencing system reliability.

  • Reliability testing can be carried out at different levels. Complicated systems can be tested at component, unit, subsystem, system, circuit board and assembly levels.

  • As indicated by ANSI, Software Reliability is defined as: the likelihood of failure free software operation for a predefined time-frame in a predetermined environment. Software Reliability is not an immediate function of time. Electronic and mechanical parts may turn out to be towards becoming “old” and destroy with time and use, however software won’t rust or destroy amid its life cycle. Software won’t change after some time unless purposefully changed or updated.

  • Reliability testing will have a tendency to reveal prior those failures that are in all likelihood in real-time operations, in this manner coordinating endeavors at settling the most imperative shortcomings.

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Software reliability plays an important role in software quality. Software reliability can be divided into three parts as below:

  1. Modeling

  2. Measurement

  3. Improvement

  1. Modeling:

Software reliability modeling has developed to the point that significant outcomes can be gotten by applying appropriate models to the issue. There are a number of models that exist, yet no single model can catch an essential measure of the software characteristics. Assumptions and abstractions must be made to simplify the issue. There is no single model that is all inclusive to every one of the circumstances.

  1. Measurement:

Software reliability estimation is naive as of now. Measurement is a long way from commonplace in software, similar to other engineering related fields. “How great is the software product, quantitatively?” As straightforward as the question may be, there is still no clever response. Software reliability cannot be measured directly, so other related aspects are measured to gauge software reliability and compare it with other products. Development process, shortcomings and failures found are all elements identified with software reliability.

  1. Improvement:

Software reliability improvement is difficult. The trouble of the issue originates from deficient comprehension of software reliability and on the whole, the attributes of software. Up to this point there is no great approach to vanquish the complexity problem of the software. Complete testing of a modestly complex software module is infeasible. Free of defects software product can not be guaranteed. Real-time constraints of time and spending plan severely restrains the efforts put into software reliability improvements.

For an organization to perform reliability testing is generally costlier than the typical functional testing as it requires more change and swings to distinguish the application breakpoint and loads of technical abilities and experience on the testing resource side.

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The Role of Volume Testing In Software Testing

As a part of our software testing article series, today we will be seeing what is volume testing, and the various aspects related to it.

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Now, let’s focus our attention on understanding Volume testing.

It comes under the category of non-functional testing. Volume testing is nothing but testing a software application or product with a specific amount of data. E.g. in the event that we need to volume test our application with a particular database size, we have to extend our database to that size and afterwards test the application’s performance based on it.

  • Volume testing” is a term stated and elaborated in The Art of Software Testing, 1979, by Glenford Myer. As per his definition, Volume testing is “Subjecting the program to heavy volumes of data. The purpose of volume testing is to show that the program cannot handle the volume of data specified in its objectives” – p. 113.

  • The role of volume testing is to decide system performance with expanding volumes of data in the database.

  • Test cases are extracted from design documents

  • Data to be tested is normally generated with the help of a test data generator.

  • A small amount of data is tested during the developmental phase.

  • The test data used is just to assess the system performance. Test data is not required to be logically correct.

  • Post the completion of testing, results are logged and tracked to bring it to closure.

  • Software performance deteriorates with time since there is huge amount of data overtime.

Checklist for Volume testing:

  • Checking the response time of the system.

  • Check for any data loss.

  • Check if data is being overwritten sans any notification.

  • Check whether data is being stored in an incorrect manner.

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Examples of Volume Testing:

In the event that you are planning for a software to be utilized on 1,000 PCs, you ought to reproduce the utilization of the system on a similar number of PCs. That is what you call as volume testing. All the actual exercises that will be performed by the users ought to be reproduced and performed. This will incorporate opening of files, creating documents, and processing data or any utilization the end user will probably utilize the system for.

In the event that you need to test the application with a database of a particular size, the database of the system ought to be extended by adding more data to the system database until it meets the desired objective.

Volume testing vs load testing:

Volume testing makes sure if the software under question functions as per expectations for certain volume of data. Volume can be built by increasing size of the document. As far as load testing is concerned, load tests checks the system performance when the load is increased. Load testing here will be increasing the number of files. Volume testing can be utilized to quantify the throughput while load testing can be utilized for measuring the performance.

Volume-testing services incorporate test management, development of test labs, test strategy designing and planning and test plan development, development of automation testing systems, assistance in making test script, developing test scenarios, test case execution and provide quantifiable test reports.

Hope that you found this article on Volume testing, to be informative. We will come up with more topics related to software testing.

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Aspects Related To Endurance Testing

Today we are going to study the concept of Endurance testing in software testing. Let’s try to understand what it is and its purpose. Testing courses in Pune cover this topic along with other software testing related concepts. For undergoing a testing course, select a software testing institute in Pune and take admission.

Endurance testing falls under the category of non functional type of software testing. It is also termed as Soak testing.

Some aspects related to Endurance testing:

  • It basically comes under non-functional testing.

  • It is intended to check the memory leaks.

  • The objective is to find out how the system acts under continuous use. That is, to guarantee that the throughput or/and reaction times after some long stretch of continuous activity are as good or superior than at the start of the test.

  • Endurance testing consists of testing a system with a critical load reached out over a noteworthy time-frame, to find how the system functions under sustained load. For instance, in software testing, a system might continue to function on exactly as expected when tested for 1 hour, yet, when the same system is tested for 3 hours, issues, e.g. memory leaks lead the system to break down or act in a random manner.

Time frame necessary for Endurance Testing:

Endurance testing requires a lot of time since the basic intention is to verify performance of the system over delayed use. The time span for a test is finalized on the premise of variables like client involvement, actual production, utilization of system and so on. One test for such type of testing may take well more than 12 hours to be finished. A few organizations even carry out this type of testing for a period of one year.

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Endurance Testing Lifecycle:

  • Analysis of requirements:

In this stage, the prerequisites are analyzed and understood. This phase is in charge of recognizing which type of testing tramadol should be performed. E.g. if it’s a brand new software then, this testing will probably be pin scope. In any case, in the event that it is only an addendum to an established software, then, endurance testing can be ruled out.

  • Test plan:

Amid this phase, resources, time frames and cost estimation is carried out for the test cases. The extent of automation and manual testing too is chosen amid this stage. Endurance testing is done utilizing automation tools like LoadStorm. As examined before, this testing is a tedious procedure. The schedule is chosen in light of the variables like budget, client requirement and so on.

  • Test case development:

Test Cases are designed amid this phase. The workload and duration for testing is chosen amid this stage. An endurance test case may keep running from 12 to 72 hours in view of the requirements. In any case, once in a while, client can give clear specifications and duration can be decreased up to 3 or 4 hours, according to client need.

  • Testing environment:

Test Environment is created amid this stage. The environment for such type of testing ought to be disengaged from other test conditions. It ought to be like genuine production environment with the goal that outcomes produced are exact and consistent. Likewise, original environment ought to never be utilized for testing as a system crash amid testing may affect the environment and cause loss of data.

  • Test case execution:

Problems like memory leaks, moderate reaction time, database connection issues are distinguished and resolved.

  • Closure:

In view of exit criteria set amid test planning test cycle ought to be shut. Exit criteria could be defined based on the timeline or the defects found.

Thus, we saw the various aspects related to Endurance testing. Testing classes in Pune teach software testing in a professional manner. You can join them for a successful career in this field.

Understanding The Concept Of Compliance Testing

We will be covering the concept of Compliance testing in this particular article on software testing. Software testing training in Pune covers Compliance testing as a part of its course syllabus. To learn this and other concepts related to software testing, opt for the best software testing institute in Pune.

What is it?

It comes under non-functional software testing. It is connected with the IT standards took after by the company and it is the testing carried out to discover the deviations from the organization endorsed standards.

  • Testers ought to take care well while doing this type of testing, are there any downsides in benchmark implementation in our venture and need to do examination to enhance the measures.

  • It makes sure that we are executing and meeting the stated standards.

  • It is nothing but an audit of a system in sync with the known criteria.

Definition:

Compliance testing is basically a non-functional type of testing technique which is carried out to validate whether the developed software adheres to the company’s defined standards or not.

It is also termed as Conformance testing.

Elaborating Compliance testing:

This is fundamentally a sort of an audit which is carried out on the software to check if all the predetermined standards are met or not. To guarantee that the compliances are met, often a team of regulators and compliance expert individuals are formed in each organization. This board executes a check whether the development teams are meeting the guidelines of the organization or not .The teams carry out an investigation to watch that the measures are legitimately authorized and actualized. The administrative board likewise works at the same time to enhance the measures, which will thus prompt better quality.

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When to implement compliance testing?

It is exclusively the management’s call. On the off chance that they need, they need to execute adequate tests to approve the level of compliance to the technique and distinguish the violators. In any case, it might be conceivable that, absence of compliance is because of NOT understanding the concept or they are misconstrued. Management ought to guarantee that the teams have a legitimate and a reasonable comprehension of the guidelines, systems and procedure. They can orchestrate legitimate training for the team if necessary.

It might be conceivable that the standards are not distributed appropriately or might be that the benchmarks itself are of low quality. In such a circumstance, efforts should me made either to correct it or to adopt another approach. It is vital that the compliance check ought to be made right from the origin of the venture than at the later stage since it is hard to redress the application when the necessity itself are not properly archived.

Compliance testing is otherwise called Conformance testing. The measures typically utilized by the IT industry, are fundamentally characterized by the large organizations like IEEE (International institute of electrical and electronics engineers) or W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and so forth. It can likewise be completed by an independent/third party organization which works in this type of testing and administration.

Conclusion:

Compliance testing is performed to guarantee the abiding of the deliverables of each stage of the development life-cycle. These measures ought to be surely understood and archived by the management guys. On the off chance that required trainings and sessions ought to be organized for the team. Compliance testing is fundamentally done through the examination procedure and the result of the review procedure ought to be very much documented.

These were a few facts about compliance testing. Join software testing classes in Pune, to get training in software testing.

Overview On Documentation Testing

This article is dedicated towards documentation testing. We will elaborate the concept and see what it is all about. Software testing training in Pune, can turn out to be useful for those who want to become a software testing professional. It would also help them to land a software testing job in Pune.

Getting back to documentation testing, it comes under the category of non-functional type of software testing.

  • It is a type of non-functional testing.

  • Documentation testing can begin at the absolute starting point of the software process and subsequently spares a lot of money, since the prior a defect is discovered, the less it will cost to be resolved.

  • Any pictorial or written information portraying, characterizing, determining, revealing, or ensuring activities, requirements, methods, or results’. Documentation happens to be as essential to a product’s prosperity as the product itself. On the off chance that the documentation is poor, non-existent, or improper, it affects the quality of the product and the seller.

  • This is a standout amongst the most practical and effective ways to deal with testing. In the event that the documentation is wrong: there will be major and expensive issues. The documentation can be tested in various distinctive approaches to a wide range of degrees of complexity. These range from running the docs through a spelling and grammar checking tool, to physically inspecting the documentation to evacuate any equivocalness or irregularity.

  • According to the IEEE Documentation portraying plans for, or consequences of, the testing of a system or module, Types incorporate test case specification, test incident report, test log, test procedure, test plan, test report. Subsequently the testing of all the previously mentioned documents is termed as documentation testing.

Testing classes in Pune usually teach documentation testing as well.

Why documentation testing is not given importance?

Why documentation testing is not given as much importance as different other types of testing might be we are ignorant some place in defining the Documentation testing. Documentation testing is in fact the most vital amongst all the testing types as it verifies the grammar, uncertainty, and irregularity in the capacities to be actualized and performed. Product documentation is as much critical as the product itself. Hence if documentation will be poor, non-existent, or totally wrong it won’t just influence the nature of the product but additionally the company. Unlike the past where you simply need to run a grammar check to guarantee the quality of a document; presently, software documentation comprises of a noteworthy piece of the product improvement that is 70% to gauge. Guaranteeing that documentation is right is a piece of a software tester.

How can it be performed?

Documentation Testing can be performed utilizing two techniques one of them is testing the document by verifying spellings and gramar utilizing the accessible instruments and the second one expresses the need of manual investigating of documents to find blunders, equivocalness, and irregularities.

Four key zones for documentation testing incorporates Examples, instructions, messages and samples. Instructions will be expected to be well ordered execute the test scenarios for looking blunders or their exclusion. Further examples can be given to expand the GUI modules, commands, syntax and interfaces to demonstrate executed yields or pin focuses. Inconsistencies additionally should have been dealt with errors as they can confound the users and these ambiguities will bring about much damage if the user of the system will be a new user. So irregularities are vital to fix. Examples will be required if there should arise an occurrence of any issue that jumps out at the user. Amateur Users will check the documentation for any disarray as they shouldn’t be such a great amount of proficient about the system any dependably go to the documentation for any perplexity and we ought to have the capacity to address the issue.

These were a few things about documentation testing.

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Exploratory Testing And It’s Application’s

Let us discuss today, a lesser known form of testing i.e. exploratory testing. It forms a part of the software testing process. Exploratory testing is not given much emphasis in majority of the testing classes in Pune. The reason could be not much use of it in the industry. Best institute for software testing in Pune is the place where you can get trained on software testing.

Moving on to exploratory testing, as its name infers, exploratory testing is about investigating, getting some answers concerning the software, what it does, what it doesn’t do, what works and what doesn’t work. The tester is continually settling on choices about what to test next and where to invest the (limited) time.

This is an approach that is most valuable when there are no or poor details and when time is extremely restricted.

Characteristics of exploratory testing:

  • Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach where testers are involved in minimum amount of planning and maximum level of test execution.

  • Test logging is embraced as test execution is performed, documentation of the key parts of what is tested, any defects discovered and any contemplations about conceivable further testing.

  • The test design and test execution exercises are performed in parallel normally without formally reporting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not imply that other, more formal testing procedures won’t be utilized. For instance, the tester may choose to use BVA yet will thoroughly consider and test the most essential limit values without fundamentally writing them down. A few notes will be written amid the exploratory-testing session, so that a report can be created thereafter.

  • The planning includes the formation of a test sanction, a short revelation of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the goals and conceivable ways to deal with be utilized.

  • It can likewise serve to complement one other, more formal testing, setting up more prominent trust in the software. Along these lines, exploratory testing can be utilized as a check on the formal test process by guaranteeing that the most genuine defects have been discovered.

  • Exploratory testing is portrayed in [Kaner, 2002] and [Copeland, 2003] Other methods for testing in an exploratory way (‘attacks’) are depicted in [Whittaker, 2002].

These were a few characteristics of exploratory testing. For training and placement in the field of software testing, opt for a software testing course in Pune with placement.

Pros of exploratory testing:

  • After introductory testing, most bugs are found by some kind of exploratory testing. This can be shown legitimately by expressing that programs that pass certain tests tend to keep on passing similar tests and will probably fail different tests or situations that are yet to be investigated.

  • Less planning is required, vital bugs are discovered quickly, and the approach has a tendency to be more mentally stimulating to execute than scripted tests.

  • Testers can utilize deductive thinking in light of past outcomes to manage their future testing on-the-fly. They don’t need to finish a present arrangement of scripted tests before concentrating in on or proceeding onward to investigating a more target rich environment. This likewise quickens bug recognition when utilized shrewdly.

Cons of exploratory testing:

  • Free-form exploratory testing ideas, when returned to, are probably not going to be performed in the very same way. This can be an advantage in the event that it is vital to discover new errors or a con in the event that it is more essential to repeat particular details of the prior tests. This can be controlled with particular instructions to the tester or by creating automated tests where doable, suitable, and vital (and preferably as near the unit level as could be expected under the circumstances).

  • Tests created and performed on-the-fly can’t be surveyed ahead of time and along these lines avoid errors in code and the test cases. It can be hard to demonstrate precisely which tests have been run.

This was regarding exploratory testing. Hope that the article turned out to be informative for you. For getting a job in software testing, be a trained professional with the help of testing courses in Pune.

Portability Testing In QA

Here is yet another concept from software testing. It is called as portability testing. We are going to study about the same, in this article. Search for testing courses in Pune, to get the right kind of training in this field. It would help you in the long run. Testing classes in Pune, conduct such courses.

Now, let’s focus our attention on portability testing.

Portability testing alludes to the process of testing the straightforwardness with which a computer based software module or application can be shifted from one environment to the second, e.g. transferring of any application from Windows 2000 to Windows 10. This is normally measured as far as the most extreme measure of effort is allowed. Results are measured with respect to the time required to move the software and complete the and documentation related updates.

Having the capacity to switch software starting with one machine platform then onto the next either at first or from a current environment. It alludes to system software or application programming that can be recompiled for an alternate platform or to software that is accessible for at least two unique environments.

The repetitive and incremental development cycle infers that portability testing is frequently performed in a repetitive and incremental way.

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Tests that are a part of portability testing:

  • Adaptability:

Adaptability is the ability of the software to be adjusted to various determined conditions without applying actions or means other than those accommodated for this reason for the system.

  • Installability:

Installability testing is carried out on the product used to install other softwares on its objective environment.

  • Replaceability:

Replaceability is the ability of the software to be utilized as a part of place of another predefined product for a similar reason in a similar environment.

  • Compatibility:

Concurrence is the software product’s ability to exist together with other autonomous software products in typical situations sharing common assets.

Illustrations of portability testing of an application that happens to be portable across a number of:

  • Operating systems (implies service packs and versions).

  • Browsers(that includes types and versions both).

  • Hardware related platforms( that includes servers, clients, input devices, output devices and network connecting devices).

Portability testing objectives:

  • Validate the system on a partial basis (i.e., to figure out whether it satisfies its portability prerequisites):

– Figure out whether the system can be ported to each of its related environments :

– Disk space and hardware RAM.

– Processor speed and hardware.

– Resolution of the monitor.

– Operating system version and make.

– Browser type and version.

– Figure out whether the look and feel of the site pages is comparative and functional in the different browser sorts and their variants.

  • Cause disappointments concerning the portability prerequisites that help distinguish defects that are not proficiently found amid unit and integration testing.

  • Report these defects to the development teams so that the related failures can be resolved.

  • Help decide the degree to which the system is prepared for a release.

  • Help provide project status metrics (e.g., amount of use case paths effectively tried and tested).

  • Give contribution to the defect trend investigation effort.

Thus we saw some details related to portability testing. Hope that you have got a fair bit of idea regarding portability testing.

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Software Testing: Understanding Structural Testing

Structural testing is very much a part of software testing. In this article, we will be seeing the concept of structural testing. We will thus come to know as to what is testing of software structure/architecture. What is the need of it? Etc…A software testing course in Pune with placement, will help you to get a software testing job in Pune.

Moving on with structural testing; structural testing is the testing of the structure of the software system or the individual component. Testing is frequently alluded to as ‘white box’ or ‘glass box’ or ‘clear-box testing’ on the grounds that in this kind of testing we are keen on what is going on ‘inside the application/system’.

Highlights of structural testing:

  • In case of structural testing, the testers are needed to have the information of the inside application of the code. Over here, the testers are needed to have the knowledge of how the software is executed, how it functions.

  • Structural testing can be implemented at all levels of testing. Developers utilize structural testing in case of module testing and module integration testing, particularly where there is great tool support in terms of code coverage. Structural testing is additionally utilized as a part of system and acceptance testing, yet the structures are distinctive. For instance, the scope of menu options or real business exchanges could be the structural component in the system or acceptance testing.

  • Amid structural testing the tester is focusing on how the product does it. For instance, a structural technique needs to know how the loops in the software product are functioning. Distinctive test cases might be inferred to execute the loop one time, two times and many times. This might be done paying little heed to the functionality of the software product or application.

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Techniques of structural testing:

  • Path coverage:

This technique is concerned with testing all feasible paths which implies, each statement and branch is covered.

  • Branch coverage:

This technique involves execution of a battery of tests to make sure that all branches are tested at least once.

  • Statement coverage:

The aim here is to cover all the programming statements with minimum number of tests.

Structural testing is more dedicated towards how the system does it as opposed to the functionality of the system. It gives more coverage to the testing. E.g. to test a particular error message in an application, we have to test the trigger condition behind it, however, there must be many triggers behind its occurrence. It is conceivable to miss out a great opportunity one while testing the requirements drafted in SRS. Be that as it may, utilizing this testing, the trigger is well on the way to be covered since structural testing means to cover every one of the nodes and paths in the structure of the code.

Advantages:

  • Implementation reasoning needs to be careful on the part of the test developer.

  • Helps extract errors from within the “hidden” code.

  • Helps in pointing out dead code or other such problems keeping in mind the best programming practices.

Disadvantages:

  • Chances of overseeing a few lines of code by accident.

  • Proves to be costly both because of the time required and the amount of money spent in order to perform white box testing.

  • As white box testing is involved, having detailed knowledge of the programming language is absolutely necessary.

These were a few things about structural testing, which we saw above. Software testing training in Pune can help you to begin a career in this very field.