Monthly Archives: February 2017

Concept Of Alpha Testing

Today, we are going to study about alpha testing in this article. It is a very important phase in the software testing process. A software testing course can help you prepare for a career in this field.

If you are based in Pune, a software institute in Pune will offer you various testing related courses.

Now,

Let’s come back to discussing alpha testing.

Alpha testing is amongst the most widely practiced software testing strategy utilized as a part of software development. Its especially utilized by the product development companies.

Alpha testing can be termed as a kind of acceptance testing; performed to distinguish every single conceivable issue/bugs before releasing the software product to end users or public. The main of this testing is to recreate genuine users by utilizing blackbox and whitebox techniques. The point is to execute all the tasks that a run of the mill user may perform. Alpha testing is done in a lab scenario and generally the testers are in house representatives of the company. To put it as straightforward as could be possible, this sort of testing is called alpha simply because it is done at an early time, close to the end of the development of the product, and prior to beta testing.

Some characteristics of Alpha testing:

  • Alpha testing is simulated or real time environment testing by potential clients/end users or an independent test team at the developers’ site. Alpha testing is regularly utilized for off-the-rack software as a type of internal acceptance testing, before the software product goes to the beta testing phase.

  • Alpha testing is nothing but testing of an application when the development phase is going to end. Small design related changes can even now be executed on account of alpha testing.

  • Alpha testing is normally carried out by a team that is not a part of the design team, yet at the same time, within the organization, e.g. in-house software testing engineers, or software QA engineers.

  • This test is conducted at the developers location. Developers keep an eye on the users and note down the issues observed by them.

  • Alpha testing is the final round of testing before the product is released to the end user. It has two stages:

    • In the first phase of alpha testing, the software product is tested by the in-house team of developers. They utilize either debugger software, or hardware based debuggers. The objective is to discover the bugs really fast.

    • In the second phase of the alpha testing process, the product is given over to the software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is identical to the proposed use.

  • Alpha testing makes use of both the black box and white box testing techniques.

  • Security testing and reliability testing are not a part of the in-depth alpha testing.

  • A lengthy execution cycle can be required in case of alpha testing.

  • Critical bugs or fixes can be tended to by developers promptly in Alpha testing.

Advantages of alpha testing:

  • Clear perspective of the reliability pf the product is given at an early stage.

  • It helps in reproducing the real time user conduct and his environment.

  • It helps in recognizing genuine threats or bugs and permits quick action towards their resolution.

Disadvantages of alpha testing:

It is not possible to test the software with in depth functionality being covered, as it still lies in the development phase.

That was regarding alpha testing and the various aspects related to it. Doing a software course is what is recommended, if you want to enter the field of software development or software testing.

A Look Into The Incremental Model of Software Testing

Today, we will take a look into what is the incremental model of software testing. We will check out what it is? It’s advantages, disadvantages and when is it ideal to use. You can learn the various models in software testing, by enrolling for a software testing course in Pune. Choose a good software testing institute in Pune, for the same. Moving on to the incremental model of software testing….

In case of the incremental model, the entire requirement is isolated into different builds. Multiple development cycles exist over here, converting the life cycle into a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are separated up into littler, all the more effortlessly managed modules. Incremental model is a kind of software development model like V-model, Agile model and so forth.

In this model, every module goes through the necessities, design, execution and testing stages. A working rendition of the software is delivered amid the principal module, so you have a working software at an early stage amid the software life cycle. Each subsequent release of the module adds function to the prior release. The procedure proceeds till the total system is accomplished.

Every cycle goes through the phases of requirements, design, coding and testing stages. What’s more, each resulting release of the system adds functionality to the past released until all outlined functionality has been integrated in the software product.

The system is put into production when the initial increment is conveyed. The primary addition is frequently a core product where the essential requirements are tended to, and supplementary elements are included in the following augmentations. Once the core product is broke down by the customer, there is plan advancement for the following addition.

Model characteristics:

  • System development is separated down into numerous smaller development ventures.

  • Incomplete systems are progressively developed to create a final entire system.

  • Highest priority requirement is handled first.

  • Once the increment id is created, requirements for that increment are frozen.

Advantages of using the Incremental model:

  • Allows development of working software at a quick pace and at an early stage amid the software life cycle.

  • This model is more adaptable – cheaper and easier to alter the requirements and scope.

  • It is simpler to test and debug amid a smaller cycle.

  • In case of this model, the customer can give his feedback on each build.

  • Brings down introductory conveyance cost.

  • Less demanding to manage the risks in light of the fact that the risky pieces are recognized and dealt with, amid a cycle.

Disadvantages of using the incremental model:

  • Requires proper planning and design.

  • Requires a precise and complete understanding of the entire framework before it can be dissected and constructed in an incremental manner.

  • The total cost incurred is greater than the waterfall model.

When can it be used?

  • This model can be utilized when the requirements of the total framework are plainly defined and understood.

  • Significant requirements must be characterized; in any case, a few details can advance with time.

  • There is a need to get a product to the market as early as possible.

  • New kind of technology is being utilized

  • Assets with required expertise set are not accessible

  • There are some high risk prone components and goals.

These are some of the ideal situations where an incremental model can be put to use.

Thus we saw the various aspects related to the incremental model of testing. Hope that it helped you in understanding the concept.

Meanwhile, for learning software testing, you can look out for software testing classes in Pune.

Understanding the Testing Psychology!

This topic is a bit different from those taught in any software testing course. Today, we will be seeing as to what is the psychology of testing.

Tester and developer mindset:

The reviewing and testing of the softwares is unique in relation to the development and analysis of it. By this, we intend to state that on the off chance that we are building or creating applications we are working emphatically to take care of the issues amid the development phase and to make the product as per the client specifications. Nonetheless, while testing or reviewing a software, we are searching for the defects or failures. Therefore, developing the software requires an alternate mindset than that while testing the product.

The right balance between independent and self-testing :

The evaluation made on the thinking of the tester and the developer in the above section is simply to look at the two alternate points of view. It doesn’t imply that the tester can’t be the developer, or that the software developer can’t be the tester, in spite of the fact that they are separate roles to play. Actually, developers are the testers. They generally test their part which they developed. While testing their own particular code they find numerous issues so the software engineers, designers and the developers dependably test their own code before offering it to anybody. In any case we as a whole realize that it is hard to locate our own particular mistakes. Thus, coders, architects, business analyst rely on upon others to help test their work. This other individual may be some other developer from the same team or the Testing pros or professional testers. Offering applications to the testing pros or professional testers, permits an independent testing of the software.

Effective communication and feedback between the tester and developer:

We as a whole commit errors and we at times get irritated and annoyed or discouraged when somebody calls attention to them. It is human psychology. In this way, when as testers we execute a test which is a good test from our perspective since we found the defects and failures in the product. In any case, in the meantime we should be extremely cautious as how we respond or report the defects and failures to the developers. We are satisfied in light of the fact that we found an important bug, however, by what means will the requirement analyst, developers, designers, managers and customers respond ? That’s the question to be asked.

  • The ones who develop the software application may respond protectively and take this reported defect as an individual feedback.

  • The project manager might be irritated with everybody for holding up the venture.

  • The customer may lose trust in the product since he can see the defects.

Since testing can be viewed as an destructive process, we have to take extreme care while reporting the defects and failures as impartially and cordially as would be prudent.

The right balance between self-testing and independent testing needs to be achieved.

This right level of independence helps in keeping away from author bias and is frequently more viable at discovering failures and defects.

There are quite a few levels of independence in software testing which is enlisted here from the least level of independence to the topmost:

i. Testing by the individuals who developed the product.

ii. Testing by someone else inside the same team, e.g. another developer.

iii. Testing by the individual from some other team, for example, an autonomous testing team.

iv. Testing by an individual from another organization or company, e.g. outsourced testing or accreditation by an outer body.

So, this was all about the testing psyche…

For a successful career in software testing, you can opt for a software course in testing, conducted by a

well known software institute in Pune.

Understanding State Transition Testing

Software testing has a lot of jobs to offer. The thing is that you need to acquire the desired skills. For that, choose a software testing institute in Pune that conducts software testing classes in Pune.

Moving on to today’s topic….

State transition testing is utilized where some part of the framework can be portrayed in what is known as a ‘finite state machine’. This basically implies the system can be in a (limited) number of various states, and the transition from one state then onto the next are dictated by the guidelines of the ‘machine’. This is the model on which the framework and the tests are based.

Highlights of the state transition testing process:

  • Any system where you get an alternate output for the same input, contingent upon what has occurred some time recently, happens to be a finite state framework.

  • One of the benefits of the state transition process is that the model can be in depth or as abstract as you need it to be. Where a part of the framework is more essential (that is, requires all the more testing) a more noteworthy profundity of detail can be demonstrated. Where the system is less critical (requires less testing), the model can utilize a solitary state to mean what might somehow or another be a progression of various states.

  • This model consists of four fundamental parts:

– The states in which a software would remain (open or closed or funded/insufficient funds)

– The shift from one state to another (not all transitions are permitted)

– The events that might lead to a transition (closing of a file or withdrawing money from an ATM)

– Call to action as a result of transition(error prompt or successful withdrawal of cash)

That is the reason we can see that in any given state, an event can bring about just a single action, however that a similar event – from an alternate state – may bring about an alternate action and an alternate end state.

E.g.

On the off chance that a document is open, you can close it. On the off chance that no doc is open, then the action “Close” is not feasible. After you click on “Close” once, you can’t opt for it again for the same document unless you open that document. A document accordingly has two states: open and shut.

Another example is:

In the event that you ask to withdraw Rs 100 from a bank ATM, you might be given money. Later you may make the very same demand however it might decline to give you the cash due to your lacking balance. This later refusal is on the grounds that the state of your account has been transited from having adequate funds to cover the withdrawal to having lesser funds. The transaction that brought for you to change its state was likely the before withdrawal. A state chart can represent a model from the perspective of the framework, the account or the client.

Where can it be put to use?

  • When we have succession of events that happen and related conditions that apply to those events.

  • At the point when the best possible handling of a specific event relies on the events and conditions that have took place previously.

  • It is utilized for real time frameworks with different states and transitions included.

In a practical situation, testers are ordinarily given the state transition diagrams and they are required to decipher it. These outlines are either given by the Business Analysts or the stakeholder and testers utilize these graphs to design the test cases.

Thus, we saw various fundas related to the state transition testing. For more on this and other concepts, join a software testing course in Pune.

Software Quality Management and It’s Associated Phases

In this article, we will study about Software Quality Management and its associated processes. In order to study this and other topics related to software testing in greater detail, opt for a software testing course.

According to ISO 8204 definition of quality,

Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.

This means that any software product under consideration, complies with the stated requirements.

Different phases involved in Software Quality Management (SQM):

Software Quality Management (SQM) portrays the processes that guarantee that the Software Project would achieve its objectives i.e. meet the customer’s desires.

Any particular phase of SDLC has its own particular stages of planning, execution, maintenance, control and report generation. In like manner, Software Quality Management has the accompanying three classes or key stages:

  • Quality Planning

  • Quality Assurance and

  • Quality Control

Let’s take a look at them one by one.

  • Quality Planning:

Quality Planning is a standout amongst the most vital parts of Software Quality Management. It is the initiating phase of SQM. Through legitimate planning, we can guarantee that the processes that make a product are inspected effectively to meet the general venture objective. The supervision of Quality Planning procedure is taken after diversely by various organizations. It has been depicted in various Quality Policy and Documentation crosswise over different organizations.

Other industry benchmarks identified with the Software Project can be alluded to Planning stages when required. These go about as Standard contributions for some particular ventures.

Different tools and methods are utilized to design the quality plan. Few of such tools and systems are described in short in this article. Here are some outlines:-

Benchmark: Deciding on the current product standards by contrasting with the exhibitions of comparable tools which is as of now exist in the market.

Cost of Quality: The aggregate cost of value is a summation of counteractive action, examination and costs of failure.

Design of Experiments: Statistical information can be utilized to decide the components affecting the Quality of the product.

Other tools: There are different tools utilized as a part of the Planning procedure, for example, Cost Benefit Analysis, Cause and Effect Diagrams, System Flow Characteristics.

The greater part of the above key focuses helps in the arrangement of a Quality Management Plan for a specific venture.

  • Quality Assurance:

Quality Plan which is made amid planning is the input to Quality Assurance Process. The Assurance stage is having the accompanying data sources:

1. Quality Audits

2. Different Techniques used to assess performance of the venture

Quality Assurance Process helps us to guarantee that the Project is taking after the Quality Management Plan. The tools and the procedures which are utilized as a part of Planning Process, for example, System Flow Characteristics, Design of Experiments, Cause and Effect Diagrams can be executed here as well, according to necessities.

  • Quality Control:

The following stride to Quality Assurance Process is Quality Control. This particular stage consists of the following inputs:

1. Quality Management Plan.

2. Quality Standards for the Project.

3. Real Observations and Measurements of the work done or work in Progress.

The Quality Control Processes utilizes different tools to Observe and Measure if the work is carried out or not. On the off chance that the Work is done and it is found that the output is not palatable then it can be sent back to the development team for fixing.

In the event that the work done meets the prerequisites as characterized then it is acknowledged and released to the customers or clients.

Documentation:

Documentation is known to be the implicit part of SQM. In Software Quality Management Processes, documentation part is of most extreme significance. Client Requirements of any Software Project should be adequately documented. Else, software ventures fail to screen different phases of the life cycle. A situation where the Requirements of any Software Project are not adequately documented, it is very conceivable that there can be a circumstance where client’s requirements are not known to the testing team. Thus, testing team won’t have the capacity to test the developed software venture as per the client’s necessities or desires.

The lacking data may bring about deficient “Software Quality”, which is not at all acceptable.

For a certificate course in software testing, join a software course at a software institute in Pune.

The Role of Test Closure Activities in Testing Process

In this article, we will try to understand the importance of test closure activities in the software testing process. To learn the various concepts related to software testing, go for a software testing course in Pune. You will get one at a software testing institute in Pune.

For now, lets carry on with test closure activities.

In the wake of verifying that test execution has been finished, the data received from various finished test exercises should be gathered and consolidated. You have to analyze the data to discover realities and numbers about the testing exercises amid the project cycle.

Test completion tasks are done generally after the software is delivered, however there are different examples too where test closure is done like, if the venture got canceled or after support release is finished. Test conclusion exercises predominantly involve four sorts. Let’s see them one by one:

  1. Ensure completion of testing process:

Ensuring that all the testing work has really been finished and closed. In case of complex projects it is likely that there can be a couple of things missed, so the test lead or manger needs to twofold check the test plan and ensure that all the planned tasks are really done. They have to ensure that all the decided test cases are either executed or skipped after the go ahead from stakeholders. Likewise every one of the defects in the venture ought to either be resolved and re-tested or conceded or acknowledged as perpetual confinements [such as, Technology limitations].

  1. Handing over of test outcomes:

Hand over the test artifacts to individuals who require it in future. After the release of the product, there are other individuals who will in any case be dealing with the project to maintain it, for instance teams like support and maintenance. These teams will require the test artifacts to make sense of if the reported bugs are as of now known defects or its another issue underway. Test artifacts are likewise required by support team to make sense of the steps to execute the diverse test scenarios or regression after any fixes are finished by maintenance engineers.

  1. Project review:

This is a critical activity of test conclusion, extend reviews are done to record the lessons learned in the project(both bad and the good). In these review meetings, it is examined that we keep on using best practices that worked truly well amid the venture and quit utilizing any unsuccessful practices. There are numerous critical areas about project that should be talked about in review meetings, some of those areas include:

  • Is the process followed in existing venture proficient or there are enhancements required in the process also.

  • What was the pattern of defects found during the project. For instance, were the defects for the most part discovered late in light of the fact that we avoided a test level which would have recognized defects in advance and at a much lower cost. We likewise need to discover was there any absence of skillset in the team because of which the team was not able to discover issues or it was a new technology because of which extensive number of bugs were found.

  • Did the process of testing go smoothly as per plan? Or, were there any hiccups and diversions from the plan that need to be rectified in the upcoming projects? These and such questions need to be asked.

   4. Record and maintain test work products:

At last, all the test work products like test outcomes, test logs, test status reports, test cases, test plans and so on, ought to be preserved in configuration management system. The test plan and project plan ought to be put away in planning archive and have an unmistakable linkage to system and version they were utilized on, likewise the test execution reports ought to plainly be linked to the product version for which they were created.

This was about the role of test closure activities, in the testing process. For more on this, and other testing related concepts, opt for software testing classes in Pune.

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