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ELECTRICAL AUTO CAD

In AutoCAD Electrical Location/Installation codes are significant part of the design and need to be used in reports, for organizing information transfer to Autodesk Inventor. There are various cases this information is included to each component one at a time.

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All you need to do is a location box needs to be inserted around one or more components. Updating option is existing with you and the location and installation codes for the parent components inside the box for apt an similarity with the location box.

Here are few location box awareness based AutoCAD Electrical commands:

Into a location box the insertion or transferring of a component updates the location and installation values of the component.

The choice for updating the location and installation values is initiated by moving a component out of a location box for the components to have a good compatibility for matching the drawing values.

It shows whether the insertion of a component is considered inside or outside a location box.

Steps:

1) Click on Schematic tab then to Insert components panel find a drop down of Location Box click on Location Box.

2) Insert Location Box- here you will find

  • Rectangular Box
    • Select first point
    • Select Second point
  • Orthogonal shape
  • Input 9 in the command line
  • Select as many points required for including the components needed.
  • Declare c in the command line for closing the shape.

3) Location Dialog Box

  • Provide Location and/or Installation code that is utilized for the browse to select an existing code from the project or LOC file. Like and pick a component can also be used from the active drawing for setting the codes.
  • Whether for updating the location and installation values, select it for the parent components inside the box for matching the values of the location box.
  • The visibility of the location is selected and installed with attributes of all the components inside the box.

Text Height- Input the details of height or select the Pick Height button for choosing a text object on the drawing with the desired height.

Box description– Input the description value.

Description insertion point– Modify the location for the description text. If rectangle is not the shape of the box then the button is disabled.

Use= Installation + Location Values- Based on the location box values enter a predefined value.

Use Location-Installation values=Based on the location box values insert a predefined value.

Drawing- Shows all Location Box Descriptions- Drawing dialog box. Select a description from the list.

Pick Like– Location Box dialog box has temporary exist so you can choose a current description value on the drawing.

4) Edit Component command is used for editing a location

Adding important location must be a streamlined process and information of the installation code to your project data must speed up the process maintenance and integrity.

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Explain HMI software in detail?

A way for interacting with machine operators and for managing a system Human Machine Interface (HMI) is used. Graphical User Interface is the mode of interaction which helps in information exchange and communication between two types of HMIs; a superlative level and a machine level.

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It is designed for either machine level HMI or supervisory level HMI with software suitable for both types. They have costly outset of software applications but can reduce long term costs and reduce redundancies in the future.

Choosing HMI software usually starts with an analysis of specified products and features. The system architecture, performance requirements, cost of procurement needs, integration and operations are the key features of this software.

This actually means the operator through some sort of GUI. The future of HMI systems permit operators to see diagrams, detailed system schematics, digital photos, etc. For motion control applications, visual GUI can vary from simple 4 line x 20 column text displays for monitor coloring with touchscreen colors.

For presenting some information to the operator through some GUI, HMI is used normally. You will find high class HMI systems for allowing operators for diagram viewing . Normally standard versions are used on low-cost systems for non task-intensive stuffs.

For performing some basic control functions, HMI unit is programmed and is used for editing servomotor parameters and even issuing all round commands for control axes on a machine.

HMI’s basic type has them placed with only simple functions for viewing the processes or creating simple modifications to some individual variables or parameters or setpoints.

For touchscreen functionality there are some HMI editor softwares available through a range of dimensions and colors. Other than that they provide control functions for industrial automation machines. They offer control functions for automation of industrial machines. Windows-based and screen editor software are used for programming. It can allow fast editing of schematics and set suitable protocols for communication.

The displays are completed by HMI accessories relying on the requirements of the operator. Relying on the application complexity there are variety of I/O options there such as the number of digital or analog inputs or outputs and communication protocols vary from simple RS-232 links to superlative protocols like CANopne, SERCOS, and Ethernet-based communications.

Mobile networks communication are backed up through ControlNet and DeviceNet. The former offer high speed transmission of time critical data message and I/O data. The later manages industrial devices like limit switches, drives, motor starters, photoelectric cells, operator displays, and valve manifolds to PC and PLC. HMI software data management between the machines and operator interactions are offered by the use of both the communication systems.

Structured around mobile there are more sophisticated HMI softwares with portable platforms like Microsoft Windows CE platform, scalable version of Windows Operating System and handheld devices. As the operating system is shared on machine-level embedded HMI, solid-state open HMI machines, shared HMI servers and portable HMI devices.

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What is a Block and explain Block diagram?

Blocks or system building blocks are modular structures with SysML (Systems Modeling Language) that shows statistical concepts and objects in the system. In the era of software development for instance blocks describe operators and data elements or control flow elements. There are many identifiable properties in a block diagram and when taken together, defines the block in a question. A collection of parts representing a specific role in a specific context is called blocks under a system.

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Define Block Diagram

It is a system represented in a graphical format. A functional view is provided by the system because of this. A better understanding is provided by this graph of a system’s functions and help making interconnections within it. They obtain their name from the rectangular elements found in this type of diagram. For hardware and software systems representation this process is used. According to the function and structure block diagrams are described and defined as well as their block relationships.

Significance of block diagrams

An important method for developing and describing hardware or software systems is called block diagram. They are well represented in work flows and processes. They are used in electronics for representing systems and shifting for instance mechatronic systems in trucking industry.
For the virtualization of information or flow of control is significant; block diagrams are used. In this way we can provide complex algorithms or information flow or individual components communication within a big system.

For making detailed descriptions block diagrams are used especially for their interfaces and other aspects of the system structure.

Blocks and Their properties

Describing various hierarchies and connections between individual building blocks within a system is called block diagrams. You can represent them in the form of blocks. Values of dependent relationships among properties and their constellations and behavior are described. For providing simplified representations of functional processes block diagrams are used and it also shows the relationships between individual building blocks in a system. Parts and properties of the blocks are integrated in a particular way and it can be described in a new way of program- the internal block diagram.

Internal Block Diagrams

OMG SysMLtm (Systems Modeling Language) is used for describing structure and flows within system blocks. You will get an overview of how various parts of blocks have relation with each other after viewing internal blocks. Also the material flow between elements, data, information, and the direction of lows can be determined.

Elements in Block Diagrams

Block: Physical and Logical components for the system.

Part: Aggregation and association is used with all the modeled aspects.

Reference: Aggregation and Association are used for all the parts that have been modeled.

Standard-Port: System block and environment interaction point.

Flow-Port: Appearance of a block through a point of interaction.

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Explain Ladder Logic And Its Advantages?

For creating and representation a program a Ladder logic programming language is used via ladder diagrams that relies on circuit diagrams. It is mainly used for creating programs or software for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), used for industrial applications.

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Initially the language evolved with being a technique for documenting the construction and design of relay racks in producing and processing control with each relay rack given with a symbol on the ladder diagram that is device connected under them with vertical rails. You will find a rung in a ladder look alike called as relay symbols.

It is not a procedural or an imperative language but a rule-based language. All the rungs in the ladder symbolizes a rule. These rules execute immediately and simultaneously when implemented to relays and various electromechanical devices. If PLCs have the program applied then the rules have sequential execution through software with a continuous loop. With quick execution of loops the effect still exist simultaneously and immediately within the required time tolerance. The PLC capabilities is used during programming as the electromechanical nature of the devices connected to it and not keep up with the instructions that some rules are skipped and the devices cannot cope up with it.

Ladder

In the industrial settings of the programming PLCs this Ladder Logic is widely used for sequential control of manufacturing processes and required operations. For programming simple and critical systems this programming language is used for reworking hard-wired systems into new programmable ones. In highly sophisticated and automation systems this programming language is used especially in electronics and car factories.

A personnel without programming backgrounds can easily perform and this is the concept of ladder logic as it uses the conventional and familiar symbols of engineering programs. This advantage is quickly negated since producers of PLCs offer ladder logic programming systems offers ladder logic programming system with their products. It does not have the same symbols and convention as the ones made for other models of PLCs from other producers. The programming system is for specific models and there is no easy way of porting the models and it must be rewritten.

Advantages of Ladder Logic

1.Familiar Programming Language

2.Cost-Effective Equipment

3.Reliable Parts

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ALSO READ : PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER IN DETAIL

 

Explain working of Lubrication System in an Engine?

You might be using your automobile everyday but it would be nice to know about its working. There are various methods to know about the working of combustion engine. You would have the clarity of maintaining your car like changing your engine lubrication oils with respect to time. Are you aware where does the oil goes or what is its work? And why it needs to be altered?

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Keeping the things oily is the first task of the engine and not to keep it dry. It would be annoying to tolerate the eardrum-piercing sounds due to friction inside a dry cylinder.

It is good to lubricate the engine with automotive lubricants. The engine keeps working therefore you cannot avoid the friction completely. So this fueling can provide a smooth running thereby reducing the wear and tear on the engine parts. Clean oil is required to filled in the engine for good performance. Do not get misunderstood by the word lubrication because during your normal visit to shops they ask you to have a lube job and they mean oiling the chassis and suspension system and it has nothing to do with lubrication system in engine.

Lubrication System

It is considered to give a flow at the accurate temperature with clean oils with proper pressure to each part of the engine. From the sump the oil is sucked out into the pump and it is pressured between the oil filter and force is fed to the main bearings and to the oil pressure gauge. This lubricant is passed through the main bearings and the drilled passages in the crankshaft after that on the bearings of the connection rod.

Piston-pin bearings and cylinder walls get the oil for lubrication when distributed by the rotating crankshaft. The excess is being scraped by the lower ring in the piston. The main supply passage from a tributary or a branch is the main supply passage for each camshaft bearings.

Journal Bearings

If worn takes place in crankshaft journals will have the low pressure oil and put the oil inside the engine. The rings will get overcome by the unnecessary splash and can make the engine to use that oil. Replacing the bearing inserts can replace the worn bearing surfaces. Bearing wear takes rapidly at a cold start as there is less or no oil film between the shaft and bearings.

Piston rings- cylinder

Avoid the leakage of the air mixture or fuel with piston rings and therefore use the sliding seal. During compression and combustion it gets fragile into the oil sump. On the contrary combustion leaks keep the oil in the sump, a place where they get burnt and lost. At the center of the cylinder wall the hydrodynamic lubrication prevails and the piston rings of the wonderfully maintained car is required for the lower wear and friction.

ELECTRICAL CONTROL PANELS- FROM BEGINNERS POINT OF VIEW

For controlling the equipments, electrical control panel is used. They provide power, control, and operator devices that allow an operator for providing a piece of equipment. For controlling every piece of equipment in the industry electrical control panels are used and it is very tough for describing all the device combinations possible as every industry and the most companies have defined preferences.

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If you are a fresher and need to learn about the control panels fast, take your time. Find someone for helping you and someone who knows about your work. Begin from the base and build up from there.

The Basics Of Control Panels

The logical operating sequence is controlled by the control components. Here are major control component type descriptions:

Control Relays:

The simplest electrical device for control is the control relay. It has a coil that can be energized and de-energized by an electrical voltage and contacts that change logic state based on the coil state. Other devices like contactors, pilot, light, etc are turned using in Control relays for on and off purpose.

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Timing Relays:

It is the simplest control device as they control relays with built-i timers for controlling their contacts change state and are used for switching on and off the devices like contactors, pilot lights,etc at specific times.

ON TIMER- For changing to on state it has contacts after on delay when coil is energized.

Off TIMER- While coil is de-energized contacts change to off state after off delay.

ONE SHOT TIMER- When coil is energized it has contacts for changing and remaining in on state and on time when coil is energized.

REPEAT CYCLE TIMER- There is a repeated change in states of contacts (on/off) when coil is energized.

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC):

A collection of components (relays, timers, etc) in a package is called PLC. They are packed in various forms and is varied in price from under 100 $ to several thousand dollars. They also allow communications and are very flexible with communication but you need people with good computer skills, along with programming tools, softwares, cables, computer system, etc. for getting a good properly in your application.
Here are few examples for detailing some of the control panel attributes.

1) Safety Ratings

certificate from the 3rd party about its safety= UL508A (cULus)

Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR)= 5kA.

2) Enclosure Ratings

NEMA Rating: NEMA 4x Outdoor

Material: 304 Stainless Steel

Mounting: Wall Mounting

Door Mechanism: Lockable Handle with 3 Point Door Latch

3) Main Power

Incoming Power

480V 3 Phase through a Main Circuit Breaker

Outgoing 480 V Power

480 V 3 Phase 5.0 Hp Fan through a Motor Starter

480 V 3 Phase 1.0 HP Pump through a Motor Starter.

4) Control Power

  • 120V and 24VDC
    • 480V-120V Transformer
    • 120V-24VDC Power Supply
  • Outgoing 120V Power
    • Chemical Pump through a Power Relay

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Alternator Synchronous Generator and its types!

Alternator as the name itself says, it is a machine that converts mechanical energy to AC electric power at particular current and voltage. It is also called as synchronous generator.

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Past of Alternator

Hippolyte Pixxi and Michale Faraday provided the first concept of alternator. They designed a rectangular rotating conductor within a magnetic field for producing alternating current in the outer static circuit. J.E.H. Gordon in the year 1886, designed and produced first prototype of useful model. A model of 100 to 300 Hz synchronous generator was designed by Kelvin and Sebastin Ferranti. In the year 1891, Nikola Tesla created a commercially useful 15 Khz generator. Poly Phase alternators after this year came into picture which can deliver multiple phase currents.

Alternator Uses

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Modern Vehicles and electrical system power gives from alternator. In the olden days, DC generators or dynamos were utilized for a reason after alternator development, more robust and light weight alternators are used as a replacement for the DC dynamos. There is a general requirement of motor vehicles with direct current and is still an alternator along with rectifier diode rather than a DC generator with better choice as there is an absence of complicated communication.

Diesel electric locomotive is also another use of alternator. Alternator driven by diesel engine is the engine of the locomotive. DC is converted from AC produced by this generator and thereby integrated into silicon diode rectifiers for feeding all the DC traction motors. Similar to diesel electric locomotive it is used in marine. Designed with appropriate adaptations the synchronous generator used in marine for facing the salt-water environment. 12 or 24 volt is the output level of marine alternator. For providing large power more than one units are used for large marine. The power generated in the marine system by the alternator is first rectified by charging the engine battery starter and battery supply is auxiliary for marine.

Types of Alternator

Synchronous or alternator generators can be divided in many ways relying on their application and design. These machines are classified according to the following applications-

1. Automotive Type- Modern Automobile uses it

2. Diesel electric locomotive type- Diesel electric multiple unit uses it.

3. Marine Type- Marine environment uses it.

4. Brush less type- Electric power generation plant as main source of power uses it.

5. Radio alternators- Low brand radio frequency transmission uses it.

The two main types of alternator classified according to their design are:

1) Salient Pole Type

Medium and low speed alternator is used over here. A large number of poles projection have their cores dovetailed or bolted on a heavy magnetic wheel of iron cast or steel of good quality magnet. Large diameters and short axial lengths are some of the classifications of such generators. A big wheel like generator are mainly utilize for low turbine speed like hydel power plant.

2) Smooth Cylindrical type

Steam turbine driven alternator uses this type. It has a high speed rotor generator. Smooth solid forged cylinder is present is present in the rotor and is having lot of slots during periods from the outer periphery for staying of field coils.

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An article explaining the working of generators?

Electrical autocad course is more than enough for you to make you your career in this field.

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One of the most useful appliances for the distribution of electrical power during a power shutdown and avoid work breakdowns is called the generators. They are available in various physical and electrical configurations for various applications.

For generating electrical power from motive power to be used in an external circuit. Mechanical energy sources include gas turbines, steam turbines, water turbines, hand cranks, and internal combustion engines. Faraday disk was the first electromagnetic generator built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. All the power for electric power grids are provided by the generators.

The electric motor does the reverse conversion from electrical energy into mechanical energy. Mechanical driven motors are many for generating electricity and frequently make acceptable manual generators.

EXPLAIN THE WORKING OF GENERATOR:

An output containing the electrical energy which was converted from mechanical energy acquired from an outside source is the electric generator device.

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One of the most significant thing which is often misunderstood by people is that electric generator does not actually create electrical energy but it uses the mechanical energy provided for pushing the electric charges present in the wire of its windings from an external electric circuit. Considering the generator this mechanism is very easy to understand. The output of the electric current provided by the generator is comprised by the flow of electric charges. It is similar to the water pump as the water pump does not create water but only supplies it. It was a discovery of Faraday that the flow of electric charges in a magnetic field could be induced by moving an electrical conductor. A voltage difference is created because of this movement between the wire or electrical conductor which in turn leads to the electric charges to flow, for producing the electric current.

Main components of a generator:

Here is how the main components of generator is classified as:

1) Engine

2) Alternator

3) Fuel System

4) Voltage Regulator

5) Cooling and Exhaust Systems

6) Lubrication System

7) Battery Charger

8) Control Panel

9) Main Assembly/ Frame

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Define Insulation Resistance and its calculation!

A very significant maintenance procedure for checking out the working condition of an electrical system is called IR test or Insulation resistance. It can be said that ht system or equipment is fine when insulation resistance is high.

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Megger is an insulation resistance measurement tools for finding the equipment’s insulation resistance. Let us see how is the IR calculated?

Define Insulation resistance

There is an application of direct current (DC) and not alternating current (AC) and this is the first thing while doing the Insulation resistance test.

A permissible level of DC voltage is applied on the device and thus there will be current flow. While checking the insulation test for the earth equipment, there is no means of physical connection to them. The micro amps amount of current will be present between them.

As we all know that R= (V/I), this equation is for calculating the insulation resistance R. Another important point to note is that the total value of measured insulation resistance is small internal resistance of equipment + insulation resistance. The value of R will be low if the strength of the insulation is high you will have low value of R and if the insulation is weak there will be higher current with low IR.

Insulation resistance is affected by the following factors:

Conductive leakage current (IL)

It is a small amount of current that flows through normal insulation, from a conductor to ground or between conductors. You will find an increase in current as there is a deterioration in the insulation and becomes predominant after the absorption current vanishes. It is time independent and fairly steady this is the most significant current for measuring insulation resistance.

LEAKAGE CURRENT AND CAPACITIVE CHARGING (IC)

In a raceway two or more conductors run together and they act like a capacitor. A leakage current flows through the conductor insulation because of this capacitive effect.

As the DC voltage is applied the current lasts only for a few seconds and falls out after the insulation is charged with full test voltage.

The capacitive current is higher than the conductive leakage current in a low-capacitance device but it vanishes usually by the time we start recording the data. It is significant for letting the reading settle out before recording it.

While testing higher capacitance equipment the capacitance leakage current charging can hold on for a longer duration before settling out.

Leakage current and Polarization absorption (IA)

Polarization of molecules inside the dielectric medium causes absorption current. There is a higher current for the first few seconds in a low-capacitance equipment and reduces slowly to zero. The higher capacitance device or wet and contaminated insulation dealing will have no reduction in the absorption current for a longer duration.

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Basics of distribution and Power transformer! Definition of Distribution transformer?

For transferring the electrical energy from a primary distribution to a secondary distribution circuit or a user circuit is the purpose of a distribution transformer.

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They are referred for the purpose of electric power distribution electric power distribution and are also termed as step down transformers. There are various types of transformer used in the distribution system like single phase transformer, three phase transformer, pad mounted transformer, pole mounted transformer, and underground transformer. They are basically compact devices and filled with insulating oil. There are various sizes and efficiencies available in the market. Depending on the purpose and budget the distribution transformers are chosen from the user end.

Distribution transformer and its special need?

Since it is energized for 24 hrs even without load; there is a low iron loss as a distribution transformer.

As the distribution transformer is working at full load; the maximum efficiency is very low at load.

For availing minimum voltage regulation the leakage reactant is kept low and hence a higher efficiency is achieved. Top changers do not have any such provisions.

Definition of Power transformer?

For transferring electrical energy in any parts of the electrical circuit between generator and primary distribution circuit. The distinction between power and distribution transformers must not be as per KVA rating according to IEEE standards

It is composed of a coil wrapped around an electromagnet which transfers the electricity. They operate at 100% efficiency unlike distribution transformer. One more difference between power and distribution transformers is that power transformers is for handling high voltages and distribution transfer is for dealing with the low ones. Distribution transformers are fed with power from the Power transformers thereby providing small amounts of power to each and every home.

What Does a Power Transformer Do?

Electrical induction is the process of transforming the current from a power transformer along with electric voltage running into a current and voltage that is used for a specific system. Running is backed up by it. The frequency of the electricity remains the same but transformed at a different value for both the voltage and current. Along with distribution transformer power works together for regulating power in transmission networks by decreasing or increasing the voltage levels relying on the requirement of the consumer.

Power transformer and its special requirements

It has cooling and a higher insulation.

Voltage regulation and tap changer to cope up with.

Higher mechanical and electrodynamic stress needs to be maintained.

Applications of Power transformer

Various kinds of electronic circuits use this transformer. Transmission and distribution of electric power are used in these transformers widely in power plants, traditional electric utility companies, etc.

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ALSO READ : What are the main differences between Power transformer and distribution transformer?