Monthly Archives: December 2016

SQL DBA Training in Pune Will Make You An Expert in Deadlock Topic

SQL DBA training in Pune will make you an expert in Deadlock topic

In a multi-process program, deadlock is an undesirable scenario that occurs in a shared atmosphere, where a procedure consistently stays for a source that is taken by another procedure.

For example, here are a few transactions {T0, T1, T2, …,Tn}. T0 requires a source X to complete its process.

Resource X is occupied by T1, and T1 is waiting for Y patiently, which is occupied by T2.

T2 is in need of source Z, which is occupied by T0.

Thus, all the procedures wait for each other to discharge resources.

In this case, none of the procedures can complete their process.

It is known as a deadlock.

Deadlocks are not healthy for a program. In case a program is trapped in a deadlock, the dealings associated with the deadlock are either returned or re-booted.

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Deadlock Prevention

To avoid any deadlock scenario in the program, the DBMS strongly examines all the functions, where dealings are about to operate. The DBMS examines the functions and checks if they can make a deadlock scenario.

If it discovers that a deadlock scenario might happen, then that transaction is never allowed to be implemented.

There are deadlock protection methods that use timestamp purchasing procedure of dealings in order to predetermine a deadlock scenario.

Wait-Die Scheme

In this plan, if a deal demands to reserve a resource (data item), which is already organised with a inconsistent reservation by another deal, then one of the two opportunities may occur −

If TS(Ti) < TS(Tj) − that is Ti, which is inquiring an inconsistent lock, has a greater than timestamp of Tj − then Ti is able to hang about until the data-item is available.

If TS(Ti) > TS(tj) − that is Timestamp of Ti is lesser than Tj − then Ti passes away. Ti is re-booted later with a random delay but with the same timestamp.

Thisdesign allows the older transaction to hold on but destroys the young one.

Wound-Wait Scheme

In this plan, if a deal demands to commit a resource (data item), which is already organised with inconsistent security by some another deal, one of the two opportunities may happen −

If TS(Ti) < TS(Tj), then Ti makes Tj to come back− that is Ti wounds Tj. Tj is re-booted later with a random delay but with the same timestamp.

If TS(Ti) > TS(Tj), then Ti needs to hang about until the source is available.

This plan, allows the young deal to wait; but when a more older deal demands a resource held on by a young one, the older deal causes the younger one to abort and release the item.

In both the cases, the deal that goes into the program at a later level is aborted.

Deadlock Avoidance

Aborting a deal is not always a realistic strategy.

Instead, deadlock prevention systems can be used to identify any deadlock scenario ahead of time. Methods like “wait-for graph” are available but they are compatible with only those systems where dealings are light and portable having less circumstances of resource. In a heavy program, deadlock protection methods may work well.

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Wait-for Graph

This is a simple method available to monitor if any deadlock scenario may occur. For each deal coming into into the program, a node is made. When a deal Ti demands for a lock on an item, say X, which is taken by some other deal Tj, a direct connection is made from Ti to Tj.

If Tj releases item X, the connection between them is removed and Ti locks the data item.

The program preserves this wait-for chart for every deal patiently awaiting some information items held by others. The program keeps verifying if there’s any cyclicpattern in the chart.

Here, we can use any of the two following methods −

  1. First, do not allow any demand for an item, which is already closed by another deal. This is not always possible and may lead to starvation, where a deal consistently stays for a data item and can never obtain it.
  2. The second option is to roll back one of the dealings. It is not always possible move back the young deal, as it may be important than the old one.With the help of some comparative criteria, a deal is selected, which is to be aborted. This deal is known as the victim and the procedure is known as victim choice.
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Make Your Oracle Careers in Testing using SQL

Make your oracle careers in testing using SQL


There are some general test requirements issues for SQL server back-end testing and also for providing test methodology which has test design and that is what this article is all about.

Forecast LRS, Delta, KENAI, KBATS and so on are the systems that are designed by ITG have client-server architectures. Completely tested projects are only with back end and they are only few in number.

1.1 Importance of back end assessments

Any client or server system is called back end. If there are problems with the back end then it may lead to dataloss, system deadlock, corrupt data, and bad efficiency. Single SQL server are logged on by various front end systems. The whole program will collapse if there is a small bug in the back end of the system. It will cost you more if there are many bugs in the back end

It is clear that various tests done in the front end doesnt affect much of back end and for back end there is a need for direct testing.

Benefits for back end testing:

Testers need not worry about the back end and it is not a black box. They have in depth control of test coverage and detail. Many bugs can be effectively found and corrected in the beginning of development stage.

If you consider Forecast LRS as an example; the amount of bugs in a back-end was more than 30% of count of bugs in the venture.

When back-end bugs are set, the program top quality is considerably increased.

1.2 Variations between back-end testing and front end testing

It is not easier to know and check a back-end than a front end end because a front side end this is because of user friendly interfaces.

Tables, saved procedures and triggers are the objects that back end has. Data reliability and protection is important.

There are some big problems like multiuser and performance. The project’s future needs operation that are slow and it is vital to be so.

There is hardly any testing tool for back end and SQL is one of the testing tool which is widely used. MS Access and MS Excel can be used to confirm information but they are not perfect for testing.

But on the contrary there are wide range of tools for front end testing.

For back end testing, the professional must be an expertise in SQL. So please the Oracle course in Pune and be an Oracle Certified Professional.

The professional must know the balance between SQL Server and SQL testing and thus there are

not many testers available.

1.3 Back end testing phases

Let us look at the various stages of back end testing.

  1. Requirements gathering for design patterns for an SQL.
  2. Analyze the requirements of the design.
  3. Application of testing in this pattern with SQL Query.
  4. The information concerning component testing (individual components of the system), regression testing (previously known bugs), integration testing (several items of the program put together), and then the entire program (which will include both front end and back ends).

In the development cycle, an early stage, component testing will be done. After the component testing, integrating and program testing will be initiated.

Throughout the project, regression testing will be done.

There is no independent testing for back end as it is governed by the front end

Final stage is quality product delivery.

1.4 Back again end testing methodology

There are things common between back end testing and front end testing and API testing.

Many testing techniques can be used for back-end testing.

Functional testing and Structural testing are the more effective techniques at the back end testing.

They are combined in some test cases.

This testing may find more bugs and therefore it is recomended for the testers to do both the testing.

And to be a tester you should join a dba institute now.

Back end testing has various options of testing and here is a list of them:

Functional testing:

A back-end can be split into a limited number of testable items centered on application’s efficiency.

Functionality and input will be the test focus and not implementation and structure. Different tasks may have different ways to split down.

Boundary testing:

There are many columns with boundary conditions.

You can consider the column percentage where the range is between 0 and 100.

This testing will be used for such boundary analysis.

Stress testing:

As the name says, heavy data is to be submitted. For instance there are many users who use the same table to access loads of data and in such cases repeated stress test is required.


There are some test places that will cover major test specifications but not all the databases are the same.

There are three different categories based on structure of SQL database:

Database Schema

Stored Procedure


Schema comprises of codes, database design, tables, table columns, column types, keys, indices, defaults. Saved Procedures are designed on the top of a SQL database.

Front end communicates to API in DLL. Stored Procedures are used for communication in SQL database. Stored Procedures are database. Triggers are also a kind of stored procedures.

Following are the structural back end test:

2.1 Database schema testing

2.2 Stored procedure tests

2.3 Trigger tests

2.4 Integration tests of SQL server

2.5 Server setup scripts


As said earlier, fucntionality and features are the prime focus for this testing. Each venture has different test cases.

There are many things common in project.

The following, speaks about the most similar things. Project specific test cases are to be added in the functional test design.

It is not a wise decision to analyze a server information source as a single entity at initial stage.

We have to split it into functional segments.

If we cannot do the partition, either we do not know that venture deep enough or the design and style is not modulized well.

How to split a server information source is essentially dependent on the project features.


Asking for project features.

For each major feature, pick up portion of schema triggers and saved procedures that apply the function and make them into a functional team.

Each team can be examined together. For example, the Forecast LRS venture had four services: forecast, product lite, reporting, and system. This was the key for functional partitioning:


If the boundary of functional groups in a back end is not apparent, we may watch information flow and see where we can examine the data:

Begin from the front end.

When a service has a demand or saves data, some saved procedures will get called.

Table updates will take place. Those saved procedures will be the starting point testing and those tables will be the best spot to evaluate and analyze results.

Following are the functional back end testing:

3.1 Test functions and features

3.2 Checking data integrity and consistency


3.3 Login and user security

3.4 Stress Testing

3.5 Test a back end via a front end

3.6 Benchmark testing

3.7 Common bugs

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Web Application Process in Oracle Databases

There is a temptation to focus adjusting efforts on the databases only, by looking at parameters, SQL concerns, and PL/SQL program code. However, adjusting solely in the databases only helps with Phase 5 and ignores all of the other areas where performance can degrade. This blog describes how issues can happen at each help the process.

Step 1: Customer Device Efficiency Problems

The formulation of a demand in the consumer machine is usually the least likely source of program performance issues. However, it should not be dismissed entirely. In many commonly used modern program architectures, it is possible to place so much program code in the consumer machine that a lot of your energy is needed before the demand is passed on to the applying server. This is particularly true for underpowered client devices with insufficient memory and slowly processors.

Step 2: Client Machine to Application Server Transmitting Problems

As is true for the consumer machine itself, the transmission between the consumer machine and the applying server is a less common cause of gradually executing web programs. However, if the consumer machine is attempting to transmit lots of information, plenty of your energy needed to do so over the Internet may increase. For example, uploading huge files (such as images) or transmitting a huge block of information may slowly down performance.

Step 3: Program Server Efficiency Problems

The application server itself rarely causes important performance deterioration. For computationally intense programs such as huge matrix inversions for linear programming issues, some performance slowdowns can happen, but this is less likely to be an important aspect in poorly executing programs.

Step 4: Program Server to Database Transmitting Problems

Transmission of information from the applying server to the databases with 1 Gbps or better transmission speeds might lead you to ignore this help the process. It is not plenty of your energy needed to move information from the applying server to the databases that is the primary issue; rather, it is plenty of your energy needed to switch contexts from the applying server to the databases that is critical. As a result, a huge quantity of demands between the applying server and the databases can easily add up to an important source of performance deterioration.

The trend in current web design is to make programs database-agnostic. This sometimes leads to an individual demand from a customer machine requiring many demands from the applying server to the databases in order to be fulfilled. What needs to be examined and measured is the quantity of round-trips made from the applying server to the databases.

Inexpert designers may create routines that perform so many round-trips that there is little adjusting that a DBA can do to yield reasonable performance outcomes. It is not unusual for a individual demand from the consumer machine to produce hundreds (if not thousands) of round-trips from the applying server to the databases before the transmission is complete. A particularly bad example of this issue needed 60,000 round-trips. Why would this huge quantity be needed? Java designers who think of the databases as nothing more than a place to store persistent copies of their classes use Getters and Setters to retrieve and/or upgrade individual attributes of objects. This type of growth can have a round-trip for every attribute of every object in the databases. This means that inserting a row into a desk with 100 columns leads to a individual INSERT followed by 99 UPDATE statements. Retrieving this history from the databases then requires 100 separate concerns.

In the applying server, identifying performance issues involves counting the quantity of transmissions made. The accumulation of your energy spent making round-trips is one of the most common locations where web application performance can experience.

Another major cause of performance issues can happen in the network firewalls where the application server and the consumer are in different zones with packet inspection in between. For normal programs, these activities may not be important, but for huge, data-transfer-oriented programs, this activity could cause a serious lag. One such example could be a document management program where whole documents are loaded from client devices to the applying server.

Step 5: Database Efficiency Problems

In the databases itself, it is important to look for the same things that cause client/server programs to run gradually. However, additional web application features can cause other performance issues in the databases.

Most web programs are stateless, meaning that each client demand is separate. This leads to the loss of already collected session-level details accumulated in global temporary platforms and package variables. Consequently, when a person records in to a software, the consumer will be making multiple demands within the context of the sign-on operation (logical session) to restore details that was already collected by previous demands.

The details pertaining to the sensible period must be retrieved at the beginning of every demand and persistently saved at the end of every demand. Depending on how this persistence is managed in the databases, a individual desk may produce massive I/O demands, resulting in redo records full of information, which may cause contention on platforms where period details is saved.

Step 6: Database to Program Server Transmitting Problems

Transferring details from the databases back to the applying server (similar to Phase 4) is usually not problematic from a performance standpoint. However, performance can experience when a Java program demands the whole items in the desk instead of a individual row. If the whole items in a databases desk with a huge quantity of rows are brought into the center level and then filtered to find the appropriate history, performance will be insufficient. During growth (with a small test database), the applying may even perform well as long as information amounts are small. In production (with larger information volumes), the level of information transferred to the applying server becomes too huge and everything slows down.

Step 7: Program Server Handling Efficiency Problems

Processing the information from the databases can be resource-intensive. Many database-agnostic Java developers reduce perform done in the databases and perform much of the applying logic in the center level. In general, complex information manipulation can be treated much more efficiently with databases program code. Java developers should reduce details returned to the applying server and, where convenient, use the databases to handle computations.

Step 8: Program Server to Customer Device Transmitting Problems

This area is one of the most important for addressing performance issues but often receives the least attention. Industry standards often assume that everyone has access to high-speed networks so that the level of information passed on from the applying server to the consumer is irrelevant. Applications with a very rich interface (UI) create more and more bloated screens of 1MB or more. Some available partial-page refresh capabilities mitigate this issue somewhat by reducing the level of information that needs to be passed on when only part of the screen is being refreshed.

Transmission between the applying server and the consumer machine is one of the most frequent causes of insufficient web application performance. If a web website takes 30 a few moments to load, even if it is prepared in 5 a few moments rather than Just a few a few moments, users will not experience much of a benefit. The quantity of information being sent must be decreased.

Step 9: Customer Device Efficiency Problems

How much perform does the consumer machine need to do to render a web application page? This area is usually not a performance killer, but it can contribute to insufficient performance. Very processing-intensive website rendering can result in insufficient application performance, especially on under equipped client devices. For oracle certification ,  you can join the oracle training to make your career in this field.

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Why To Use Data Partitioning?

As customer areas require more and more details to remain competitive, it has dropped to data base designers and directors to help ensure that the details are handled effectively and can be recovered for research efficiently. In this share we discuss dividing details and the reasons why it is so important when working with huge data source. Subsequently, you’ll follow the steps needed to make it all work.

Why Use Data Partitioning?

Let’s start by interpreting details dividing. In its easiest form, it is a way of breaking up or subsetting details into smaller units that can be handled and utilized independently. It has been around for quite a long time, both as a style strategy and as a technology. Let’s look at some of the issues that gave rise to the need for dividing and the solutions to these issues.

Tables containing very a lot of sequence have always presented issues and difficulties for DBAs, program designers, and end customers as well. For the DBA, the issues are focused on the servicing and manageability of the actual details that contain the details for these platforms. For the applying designers and end customers, the issues are question performance and details accessibility.

To minimize these issues, the standard data source style strategy was to create actually individual platforms, similar in structure (for example, columns), but each containing a part of the total details (this style strategy will be known as as non-partitioned here). These platforms could be known as directly or through a sequence of opinions. This strategy fixed some of the issues, but still meant servicing for the DBA in regards to to creating new platforms and/or opinions as new subsets of details were obtained. In addition, if access to the whole dataset was needed, a perspective was needed to join all subsets together.


When offering large databases, DBAs are required to discover the best and smart ways to set up the actual information that include the systems in the databases. The options designed at now will impact your information accessibility and accessibility as well as back-up and recovery.

Some of the benefits for databases manageability when using portioned systems are the following:

Historical groups can be produced read-only and will not need to be reinforced up more than once. This also means faster back-ups. With groups, you can move information to lower-cost storage space space by shifting the tablespace, offering it to a record via an business (datapump), or some other strategy.

The structure of a portioned desk needs to be described only once. As new subsets of information are acquired, they will be sent to the best partition, based on the splitting strategy chosen. In addition, with Oracle 12c you have the capability to discover out time periods that allow you to discover out only the groups that you need. It also allows Oracle to right away add groups based on information coming in the databases. This is an important operate for DBAs, who currently spend a while individually such as groups to their systems.

Moving a partition can now be an online operate, and the worldwide spiders are handled and not recognizable ineffective. ALTER TABLE…MOVE PARTITION allows DDL and DML to continue to run ongoing on the partition.

Global collection maintenance for the DROP and TRUNCATE PARTITION happens asynchronously so that there is no impact to the collection accessibility.

Individual tablespaces and/or their information can be taken off-line for maintenance or protecting without affecting choice other subsets of information. For example, assuming information for a desk is portioned by 1 month (later in this area, you learn about the different types of partitioning) and only 13 a few several weeks of facts are to be kept online at any once, the very first 1 month is saved and reduced from the desk when a new 1 month is acquired.

This is accomplished using the control ALTER TABLE abc DROP PARTITION xyz and has no impact on choice remaining 12 a few several weeks of information.

Other guidelines that would normally apply at the desk level can also provide to a particular partition available. A part of this are but are not on a DELETE, INSERT, SELECT, TRUNCATE, and UPDATE. TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE PARTITION features allow for streaming information maintenance for relevant systems. You should look at the Oracle Data source VLDB and Dividing Information for a complete record of the guidelines that are available with groups and subpartitions. You can join the oracle institutes in Pune for starting up the Oracle careers to make your career in this field.

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Oracle 12C Real Application Clusters

Oracle Real Program Groups (RAC) provides a data base environment that is extremely available as well as scalable. If a server in the group is not able, the data base example will keep run on the staying web servers or nodes in the group. With Oracle Clusterware, applying a new group node is made easy.

RAC provides opportunities for climbing programs further than the time of a individual server, which indicates that the surroundings can start with what is currently required and then web servers can be included as necessary.

Oracle 9i presented the Oracle Actual Program Clusters; with each following launch, control and execution of RAC have become more uncomplicated, with functions offering a well balanced atmosphere as well as developments. Oracle 12c delivers extra developments to the RAC atmosphere, and even more methods to offer application a continual.

In Oracle 11g, Oracle presented moving areas for the RAC atmosphere. Formerly, it was possible to offer methods to reduce recovery time by unable over to another node for patching, but it would still need a failure to complete patching all of the nodes in a group. Now with Oracle 12c, the areas can provide, enabling other web servers to keep operating even with the non-patched edition. They get used on the Oracle Lines Facilities Home, and can then be forced out to the other nodes. Decreasing any failures, organized or unexpected, in organizations with 24×7 functions is key.

The Oracle Clusterware is the part which enables in establishing up new web servers and can replicated an current ORACLE_HOME and data source circumstances. Also, it can turn a single-node Oracle data source into an RAC atmosphere with several nodes.

The RAC atmosphere comprises of one or more server nodes; of course, a individual server group doesn’t offer high accessibility because there is nowhere to don’t succeed over to. The web servers or nodes are linked through a personal system, also called as an interconnect. The nodes discuss the same set of drives, and if one node is not able, the other nodes in a group take over.

A common RAC atmosphere has a set of drives that are distributed by all servers; each server has at least two system ports: one for outside relationships and one for the interconnect (the personal system between nodes and a group manager).

The distributed hard drive cannot just be a easy filesystem because it needs to be cluster-aware, which is the real purpose for Oracle Clusterware. RAC still facilitates third-party group supervisors, but the Oracle Clusterware provides the hook varieties for the extra functions for provisioning or execution of new nodes and the moving areas. The Oracle Clusterware is also necessary for Automated Storage space Management (ASM), which will be mentioned in the latter part of this section.

The distributed hard drive for the clusterware comprises of two components: a voting hard drive for documenting hard drive account and an Oracle Cluster Personal computer (OCR), which contains the group options. The voting hard drive needs to be distributed and can be raw gadgets, Oracle Cluster Computer file System information, ASM, or NTFS categories. The Oracle Clusterware is the key part that allows all of the web servers to function together.

Without the interconnect, the web servers do not have a way approach each other; without the grouped hard drive, they have no way to have another node to connect to the same information. Determine 1 reveals a fundamental installation with these key elements.

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