General Considerations In Designing A Machine

Today in this blog topic we shall discuss the general considerations while designing machine components.

Following are the facts you need to consider in designing a machine component:

Following are the facts you need to consider in designing a machine component:

Work facilities

Working environment plays an essential key role in designing a machine component. A designer must be familiar to workshops and work facilities. It is important to plan and supervise the workshop operations and the design methods regarding forming, forging and casting. 

Assembly

A machine comprises of parts or components and must be assembled as a unit before it is ready for function. Large units should often be assembled in the workshop and then transfered to their servicing place. The final location is significant and the designer should know the exact location and the local facilities.

Kinematics

Motion of the parts might be

(i) Rectilinear motion that is unidirectional and reciprocating.

(ii) Curvilinear motion that is oscillatory, rotary and simple harmonic.

(iii) Constant velocity and constant or variable acceleration.

Successful operations has very simple arrangement of parts which will provide the motion.

Friction

There is always loss of power owing to frictional resistance and you must remember that starting friction is higher than friction at running. To overcome this hurdle, exact lubrication is very important. Consider the matter of lubrication of all surfaces which move in contact with others, whether in rotation or sliding.

Cost of construction

Yielding and making a component must be smooth, easy and its overall cost must be minimum. So the cost of construction is an important asset to build or make a component.

Size of the parts

Form and size of the part are based on judgement. Either the part is small but it may be checked that the stresses induced in the designed cross-section are reasonably safe. To design any machine component or part for form or size, it is essential to know the forces which the part must sustain. Designer must know the suddenly applied or shock/impact load which may cause the failure.

Safety measures

Certain machines are very dangerous during operation, typically those which need speed to ensure production at a maximum rate. So safety measures must be followed to avoid accidents.

Stress and load

The load, on a machine parts might act in different ways, due to which the internal stresses are set. These stresses are like bearing, compressive, torsion , bending stresses etc.

Quantity

The number of parts or machines to be manufactured affects the design in several ways. 

Economy

In designing the features of a machine must be carefully studied. The start, control and stop levers must be located on the basis of convenience of handling. Replacement of other parts is to be located in an easy mounting positions.

Material selections

It is very important that a designer must have a thorough knowledge of the properties of material and their behaviour under working conditions. Important features of a material are its strength, durability, flexibility etc.

We conclude the discussion now.

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