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The Important Subjects From The Point Of GATE Mechanical Engineering

To speak about Mechanical engineering, there are different subjects covering the entire mechanical syllabus and its basics.

The undergraduate syllabus or curriculum normally has subjects like Machine Design and requires knowledge of Strength of Materials because in order to design any machine component, you need to look for types of loading and calculation for forces and stresses. So, before studying Machine Design, you need to have a sound knowledge of strength of materials.

Theory of Machines need knowledge of engineering mechanics to calculate forces on element while in motion and other theories as well. 


Heat and Mass Transfer needs basic knowledge of fluid mechanics for the mode of heat transfer between solid and fluid which is in motion and also for heat exchanger analysis.  So, before you study Heat and Mass transfer, you must learn about Fluid mechanics.

Refrigeration and Air conditioning knowledge, needs use of cycles in thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer knowledge for understanding the analysis of vapour compression and vapour absorption cycle which are base of any refrigeration and air conditioning.

Hence, here we conclude that some of the subjects are unique and do not depend on other subject or its knowledge. These are 

  • Solid Mechanics

  • Elements of Mechanical Engineering

  • Engineering Graphics

  • Engineering thermodynamics

  • Fluid Mechanics 

While below mentioned subjects are totally dependent on the above ones.

  • Theory of Machines/Dynamics of Machines

  • Machine Design

  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

  • Heat and Mass Transfer

  • Manufacturing Engineering

  • Power Plant Engineering

These subjects are quite important for GATE examination and it could be helpful during final year project in mechanical engineering. The final year project actually includes most of the basic learning. 

With this we conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Working And Advantages Of Abrasive Jet Machining

In abrasive jet machining or AJM process, steam of focused abrasive particles carried with high pressure gas or air at a good velocity of about 150 to 300 m/sec is made to touch on the work surface via a nozzle, and the work material get removed by erosion by the high velocity abrasive particles. The nozzle’s inside diameter (ID) through which abrasive particles flow is about 0.18 to 0.80 mm and the distance between nozzle tip and workpiece is kept about 0.3 to 20.0 mm.

The process could be easily controlled to change the metal removal rate. This process is well suited for machining super alloys and also machining thin sections of very hard materials and making intricate holes.

When grinding particle with sharp edges hit a fragile material in a high speed, it creates dent into the material and lodges a small particle from it by a tiny brittle fracture. The lodged out or wear particle is carried away by air or gas.

Abrasive Jet Machining Principles

The gap between nozzle tip and work surface has great influence on the diameter of cut, its shape and size and also rate of material removal. It is clear that the SOD or stand off distance, changes the spread of abrasive particles on the working surface and increases the diameter of the cut.

The basic Units of AJM

It has a gas supply system (compressor), filter, mixing chamber, pressure regulator, nozzle assembly and the work holding device. In the mixing chamber, the abrasive is allowed to flow into the gas stream. The mixing ratio is controlled by a vibrator. The feed motion can be put either to the work holding device or to the nozzle.

Advantages:

A process quite suitable for machining brittle, heat resistant and fragile materials like, ceramic,glass, germanium, etc.

It could be used to cut, drill, polish, debur, clean the materials.

The surface damage is very little.

Holes of intricate shapes can be produced.

Disadvantages:

A material’s removal rate is low.

The tapering of hole mainly when the depth of the hole is more, becomes inevitable.

It need a dust collecting chamber to prevent air pollution

The abrasive particles might remain embedded into work surface.

Abrasive particles are not reusable.

Applications:

AJM is best suited for machining heat sensitive and brittle materials.

It is used to drill holes, cut slots, clean hard surfaces, polish etc.

With this we conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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Some Best Automobile Engineering Books To Read

Automobile engineering is an essential part of Mechanical Engineering. Many mechanical engineering students study this discipline to get themselves acquainted with this subject. Most of the students choose Mechanical to get them familiar with the automobile mechanism.

Automobile Engineering Books are must for the students. Though proper teaching guidance is one of the main requirements but none can deny the importance of books. You will need a good book which will take you to the peak of the knowledge.

Here we list some of the important books:

Automotive Mechanics by Crouse and Anglin:

A classic read. Attractive and essential diagrams are available so it would be nicer if you buy a coloured edition. But this book is not for all. Get this book if you wish to be a real devoted automobile engineer. An amazing book and many people will agree with us. Buy the new edition which includes all the latest data. A great book for beginners and students. And also a great reference book

Theory of Ground Vehicles by J.Y. Young

Amazing text and reference book for both educational and professional purposes. This discuss about the fundamentals of performance, handling and design of the ground vehicles as well. It is a great resource for the automotive engineers as it has many plots and visuals along with many other overwhelming information.

Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics by Thomas D. Gillespie

If you are not from a mechanical background but you love automobile as your subject, then this book is for you. You just know some elementary physics and you are ready for it. Automobile engineers ticked this book with high rating because it gives an easy understanding.

Internal combustion engines fundamentals by John Heywood

Not a best automobile book but it is called the bible of internal combustion engines. All the answers of queries starting with why and how are present in the book. It has theories and mathematics. But doesn’t discuss high speed SI and turbo diesel engines. The book discusses everything in detail so sometimes you might need to skip some pages.

At this moment we listed only these books for studying automobile engineering. If you have some suggestions, you could share the names in the comment section below and help students and professionals.

With this we conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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Electrical Discharge Machining, Its Principles And Applications

EDM is a recent machining technique used to cut metals which can’t be cut with traditional methods. EDM works with materials of electrical conductivity.

Two primary EDM methods are

  • Ram EDM
  • Wire EDM

Between the two methods the main difference is based on the electrodes. In ram EDM graphite electrodes are used, which are machined in traditional tools and with a special shape it is connected to the power source. The electrodes are connected to a ram as well. When the arrangements are done the electrodes are fed into the work piece. The entire process is carried out under a submerged fluid bath. In Wire EDM the electrode is a thin wire. Here processed brass wires are made use of for putting into the material. Wire EDM is done while submerged in a bath of water.

Ram Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) Method:

Rapid spark produced between the two electrodes control the metal erosion. An appropriate gap is necessary known as spark gap.

The rate of metal removal is related to the spark gap. If both the electrodes are of same materials then the highest erosion takes place on the positive electrode (anode). The two electrodes are kept apart and distanced by a dielectric fluid. A transient electric discharge is created across the gap in the form of spark. With a sufficient potential difference between the electrodes, the dielectric fluid is ionized and broken down to produce a conductive spark channel. The current gets discharged across the channel as spark. If potential difference is lesser than or equal to 12 volts the dielectric fluid is deionised. The process repeats by its own as the condensers begins to recharge.

The spark release energy in the form of local heat and a local temperature found is in the order of 12000°C. Such high temperature and pressure melts away some metals and little of which is vaporized and the rest fine material particles get carried away by the fluid circulating around the electrodes which create a crater on the w/p.

How to make Tool Material choice?

Many factors are considered while selecting the tool material.

  • Lower erosion rate and decent work to tool wear ratio
  • electrical conductivity
  • good machine ability
  • low electrical resistance
  • high melting point
  • high rate of electron emission

EDM has one drawback and it is wear ratio of the tool.

Tool Wear

While applying EDM the tool or cathode erodes as well and this is not good. It is unavoidable but limited as the wear of the cathode is lesser than the anode. This occurs due to the following:

  • Cations from the dielectric fluid strike the cathode but electrons hit the anode. Though electrons are lighter than the cations it has more energy and moves with greater velocity. So anode gets eroded.
  • During spark a compressive force is created at the cathode which lowers the erosion at cathode.
  • Fluid medium is made of hydrocarbon. Pyrolysis yield gases which produce carbon particle and they create a thin layer of protection on the cathode. Hence the cathode is safer than anode.

Purpose of Dielectric Fluid

  • Effective Coolant for the work piece and the tool.
  • It works like an insulating material.
  • The eroded materials are carried by the medium.
  • It is a coolant to quench the spark and prevent an arc.

What you need for dielectric fluid?

  • Optimum Viscosity is necessary.
  • It must not react with the work piece, container or tool material.
  • Non-expensive, easy availability and inflammable.
  • It must not produce toxic gases or vapours during operation.
  • It must be a hydrocarbon.

The various dielectric fluids are: transformer oil, oil, spirit (white), and kerosene etc

Advantages of EDM

  • Any hard or brittle metal which is tough as well can be machined.
  • Harder materials like steel alloys or tungsten carbides and other non-conventional machining like forging and press tools can be made.
  • Complicated shapes could be yielded.
  • Finer holes can be accurately.
  • Wear resistance surface could be made because work pieces produced with EDM have micro-craters which has lubricants.
  • Harder metals can be machined faster compared to their conventional process.

Disadvantages:

  • The power needed is quite higher compared to the traditional machining. There are chances of surface cracking when the materials become brittle at room temperature.
  • A thin layer ranging from 0.01 mm to 0,10 mm that has 4 % carbon might get deposited on the work pieces made of steel
  • A lower Material Removal Rate in comparison.
  • Can’t yield sharp corners.

Applications of EDM

  • Used for machining to give intricate shapes and narrow slots and blind cavities.
  • To generate negative tool geometry
  • EDM is quite useful for making small holes.
  • It is used in air craft engines and brake valves and etc.

Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

It cuts the work piece with electrical discharge. Here either the work piece or the wire moves. The spark discharge phenomenon which is used to erode the metal same as the traditional EDM. Here, the wire acts as an electrode hence complicated shapes could be cut easily without electrode formation. Another important part is the distilled water supplier with a constant specific resistance.

Features of Wire EDM:

  • Electrode formation is not necessary.
  • Electrode wears is negligible.
  • Smooth machine surface.
  • Tight dimensional and geometrical tolerances.
  • Straight holes can be produced.
  • Machine could be operated without regular supervision for a long time at higher operating rates.
  • You don’t need any special skill to run the machine.

Advantages

  • Due to the absence of the split lines, savings of the stages in the tools occurs. It allows more punch opening in every stage.
  • No flashes on the moulded parts.
  • Necessary for tool manufacturing and storing.
  • Work pieces are hardened before cutting.
  • Whole work can be done in a machine.
  • Very economical.
  • Number of rejected work pieces is quite small.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Significance Of 3D Printing In Near Future

3D printing is rapidly gaining prominence with advances in materials and methods that happen all the time. But is it enough prepared to help manufacturing companies get an upper edge in a competition?

To get a snapshot of the concept of 3D Printing, her is a snapshot of an interview with Kent Firestone, COO of Stratasys Direct Manufacturing.

The questions that often come to our mind are: What are the biggest challenges for a 3D printer company? Bringing down the expense of 3D printers? How to improve the capabilities of their offerings? How to make 3D printers huge and durable, and perhaps fast, to handle more than low-production/prototype manufacturing? Are there any magic tips or new technologies that could unlock many of these at once?

In reference, Kent Firestone, COO of Stratasys Direct Manufacturing said that there are many parallels between the biggest challenges facing 3D-printing companies and those facing 3D-printing users. And since it’s their job to ensure that their projects are successful, the challenges are their challenges. The speed of production and accuracy in design must also be in the customers’ radar.

There are no magic to address the challenges, solutions that lower the barriers and push the industry forward are being developed continuously. Lowering costs will make 3D printing a more approachable and economical manufacturing option for companies. And as the technology has been used to design production parts, the continuous development of machines indicates producing repeatable parts at a faster pace will be a reality.

Another thing that comes to mind is does the industry need more standards on hardware and software to make easy implementations and more transparent for users? And if so, in which areas the standards first take a start? And who must take the lead in setting the standards?

To this Firestone answered that users want to know what processes and practices will help them achieve high-quality parts, so establishing standards is a key in the industry for its evolution.

ASTM International is playing a greater role in establishing standards. The organization collaborated with the Rapid Technologies and Additive Manufacturing (RTAM) to initiate the Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies in 2009.

Developing standards for production parts is a next big step, because they need a level of standardization. Initially, success would be defined by vendors, but now ASTM is helping develop standard and test methods and carry out improvements to help companies and users work under static 3D-printing guidelines.

There is another question as what tasks would 3D printing handling for manufacturers 10 years from now? What could be the hurdles on the part of 3D-printer companies and on the part of manufacturers?

Firestone said that from now ten years, 3D printing would be an even more integral part of manufacturers’ production process.

The hurdles include equipment and material expenses, speed of production, material options, standardization, etc. He said that could see a glimpse of what technologies and capabilities are down the road with the debut of Stratasys’ Robotic-Composite and Infinite Build 3D Demonstrators along with others like Carbon.

It’s not easy to say where the industry will be 20 years down the lane, on the basis of how much has changed in the past few years. But it could be well visualised that 3D printing would take on a more prominent production role in the manufacturing world, especifically when it comes to high-volume runs of production parts.

Is 3D printing an important technology that must be taught in an engineering college? And if so, what courses should be eliminated to substitute for 3D printing?

Firestone said that 3D-printing coursework definitely has a place in the engineering colleges. Being a rapidly growing and evolving technology for the future, it needs an inclusion in the degree curriculum. But to include 3D printing in college course, you must not eliminate something else from the curriculums.

What’s the biggest misconception about 3D printing?

Firestone said that the biggest misconception is that 3D printing can’t yield functional parts.Some companies have an “all or nothing” view of 3D printing. Others say it is off as a prototyping process and design box. With either of those notions, will not well prepare companies to maximize 3D printing.

Is there anything else that engineers must know about the technology?

Firestone replied that while considering 3D printing, engineers must look beyond prototyping. There are several advantages for those applications but there are circumstances where 3D printing can be used where they have not been considered earlier. Jigs, tools, fixtures, and assembly components are the applications where making use of 3D printing can help and benefit the engineers.

Firestone suggested that engineers mustn’t view 3D printing through an “all or nothing” view. Using this technology makes sense and can result in certain major benefits.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Various Mechanical Properties of Materials

A design is expected to have a good concept about mechanical properties of materials. Different manufacturing methods and heat treatment can change the materials of their properties. A good design engineer must have a good knowledge about these properties.

Engineering materials are divided as follows:-

1. Metal and Metal Alloys; Example: Iron, Copper, Nickel etc.

2. Non- Metals; Example: Ceramics, rubber, glass etc.

Important Mechanical Properties of Materials are Described Below:

Mechanical Properties of Materials

a. Strength: This describes the ability to resist any external force. Without Yielding (Yield point is that point at which plastic deformation starts) breaks.

b. Stiffness: This is measured by modulus of elasticity. It is ability of the material to prevent deformation when stress is applied.

c. Elasticity: This is the ability of a material to regain its original after the removal of external force. Steel’s elasticity is greater than rubber.

d. Plasticity: This property makes the material deform permanently. It allows shaping the material to make thin plates or molds.

e. Ductility: This property allows it to become a thin wire under the application of tensile force.

f. Brittleness: This property makes the material breakable with a very little distortion. Brittle materials are like glass, ceramic, cast iron.

g. Malleability: It allows the material to be converted into thin sheets or plates. It is actually a special case of ductility. Malleable materials are prone to deformation. They are not strong. Lead, copper, soft steel, etc are quite malleable which are used in engineering processes.

h. Toughness: An ability of the material to avoid fracture on application of heavy loads and shocks. Toughness gets reduced on heating.

i. Resilience: This property is necessary to resist shocks and impacts. Resilience is the energy absorbed within the elastic limit per unit volume.

j. Creep: This property explains the phenomenon of permanent and slow deformation of a material on being subjected to constant stress at high temperatures.

k. Fatigue: when material is applied with repeated loads, it fails to perform before reaching yield point. This failure is called fatigue. At first it develops microscopic cracks in machine parts and with time the crack increases.

l. Hardness: It has different meanings. This is resistance to wear, deformation and scratches are.

Mechanical properties vary in metals and non metals. Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineers must have a good knowledge about material properties.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

At CRB Tech Solutions, we give CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, then join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Working Of Ultrasonic Machining Or USM

This is a process where the work piece material is removed by repetitive action due to impact by abrasive particles. The erosion occurs by the abrasive particles which are carried by a liquid medium in the slurry form. A vibrating tool is used to give the impact. The tool gets a vibrating motion from the vibrating horn.

Ultrasonic Machining Principles

Working principle of Ultrasonic Machining or Ultrasonic Impact Grinding is described here. The shaped tool due to the actions of mechanical vibration cause the abrasive particles dipped in slurry to get hammered on the stationary work piece. This leads to micro-indentation fracture on the material.

Small abraded particles are removed along the periphery which is perpendicular to the direction of vibratory tool. On removal of material, a cavity is formed. The abrasive particles erode as with the continuation of the machining process. Hence, fresh abrasive particles are needed to be supplied in the machining zone. Abrasive particles in association with the liquid is given to the m/c zone and it confirms the removal of the worn out materials.

Machining Time

The machining time depends on the frequency of vibration, material properties and size of grain. The amplitude of the vibration might vary from 5 to 75 µm and frequency might vary from 19~25 kHz. A static force is needed to hold the job against the machining tool.

Ultrasonic Machining Process

Advantages

1. It is used to drill circular or non-circular holes on hard materials like carbides, stones, ceramics and other brittle substances.

2. Non-conducting materials like ceramics, glass, and semi precious stones can also be machined.

Disadvantages

1. Little slower than traditional process of machining.

2. Creating deeper holes is difficult owing to restricted movement of suspension.

3. It is tedious to select the perfect tool geometry for making hole of a certain dimension.

4. Higher tool wear due to continuous flow of abrasive slurry.

Applications:

1. It is used to machine hard and brittle materials like tungsten diamond, carbide and glass.

2. Wire drawing dies of tungsten carbide can be drilled by this process.

3. Both circular and non-circular holes can be created.

4. It is proved a success in machining silicon quartz, geranium, and synthetic ruby etc.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

Here at CRB Tech Solutions, we offer CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are searching for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, come and join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Importance Of CFD For Turbo machinery Equipments And Why Manufacturers Need A CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD has gained importance over the past decades and today it delivers results with accuracy, using huge solvers, in lesser times. It helps in understanding the behaviour of heavy machineries that deal with fluid flow, by virtual simulations and its effects on components while operating.

CFD could bring in major changes in Energy Consumption

For an instance, a cement manufacturer was able to see a flow pattern in the duct bend, and on design optimization, it was possible to lower the energy consumption of blowers and compressors by 30% while maintaining the same mass flow rate. This erased the time needed for prototype testing and applying similar assessment results for other ducts across the plant facility.

Benefits of CFD for Manufacturers

Designing vital parts for turbo machinery demands finding of meridional channel and blade shape. There are also other accessories and duct works which are analyzed to get an overall optimized performance delivered by the unit. To maintain perfection throughout is possible, but a tedious task since it brings many calculations. Whereas, with CFD there are several ways to deliver accurate results for optimising design optimization and performance.

Reduced Time and eliminates prototype testing

With a traditional approach of testing prototype, the verification of construction and design quality on test stand was done during mass or a piece production. It delivered results but with huge investments only for building a prototype. While, the 3D modeling method delivers the base for CFD for turbo machinery equipments; which is accurate, cheaper and yields fast results.

Tests for unusual conditions

CFD solvers could also anticipate the conditions, not only under normalcy, but also when surge appears, a phenomenon which leads to unstable operations. Other than, fixed inlet & outlet pressure, absorbing boundary, total outlet pressure, presence of shock waves etc. could be studied via virtual simulations; and their effect could be known to develop knowledge needed for critical modifications.

Eliminating iterations of experiments

There is a need for software capability to study the flow equations, because Navier-Stokes calculations for blades design gives lots of information with increased inputs. Such huge sets of information can’t be grasped by human brain to post it for new designs or lead to trial and error approach that verifies each set. Such approach has been replaced by CFD tools that solve Navier-Stokes equations as a result lowered reduced time consumption for a number of design iterations.

Reducing hazard risks

CFD simulations performed prior the making phase, permits to deliver products with safety standards. As the designs are optimized, there are fewer possibilities to have any initiation of change orders except from the one that arise due to manufacturing shop floor conditions. This helps the manufacturer to carry out seamless process, without affecting product quality.

Conclusion

CFD approach for turbo machinery parts, is the best way to help the manufacturers in product delivery of high quality and safety standards. Cost efficient delivery is achieved owing to lowered manufacturing and testing costs. As turbo machinery equipments need high voltage and current supply and extreme conditions of pressure and temperature; the necessity to verify the design safety, working, performance and costs is a vital stage.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

Here at CRB Tech Solutions, we offer CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are looking for an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are searching for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, come and join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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List Of Best Mechanical Engineering Books For Student

In this article we created a list of books for mechanical engineering for the core courses of the subject. There are many books available for study of Mechanical Engineering but it’s not possible to study all the books of the core courses in ME. And many times it is impossible to purchase all the books in every subject.

Best Mechanical Engineering Books PDF For Undergrads

The best books for the core ME courses are –

Mechanical Engineering Drawing books

  • Engineering Drawing and Design by David A. Madsen and David P. Madsen.
  • Engineering Drawing by Basant Agarwal and C M Agarwal

Basic Books For Mechanical Engineering:

Basic Thermodynamics books

  • Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach by Younus A. Cengel and Micheal A. Boles (Best ME book; pdf is also available)
  • Rogers’ Engineering Thermodynamics
  • P.K. Nag’s Basic and Applied Thermodynamics
  • Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics by Michael J. Moran and Howard N. Shapiro

Engineering or Vector Mechanics books

  • Vector Mechanics for Engineers statics and dynamics by Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russel Johnston. The solution guide of this book is also available.
  • 800 solved problems in Vector Mechanics for Engineers (Vol 1) by Joseph Shelley
  • 700 solved problems in Vector Mechanics for Engineers (Vol 2) by Joseph Shelley

Mechanics of Solids or Strength of Materials books

  • Timshenko’s History of Strength of Materials
  • Singer’s Strength of Materials
  • Mechanics of Materials by Beer Johnston
  • Engineering Mechanics of Solids by Popov

Numerical books

  • Numerical Methods for Engineers by Steven Chapra.
  • Numeric Methods for Scientists and Engineers by R.W. Hamming.
  • Fundamentals of Engineering Numerical Analysis by Parviz Moin

Heat Transfer books

  • Heat and Mass Transfer an Engineering Approach by Cengel
  • Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer by Incorpera, DeWitt, Lavine, Bergman
  • Introduction to Heat Transfer by Vedat Arpaci , Shu-hsin – Kao , Ahmet Selamet

Fluid Mechanics

  • Mechanics of fluids by Irving Shames
  • Fluid Mechanics – Frank M. White
  • Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics by Bruce R. Munson, Wade W. Huebsch, Alric P. Rothmayer.
  • Fluid Mechanics by Cengel and Kimbala

Machine Design books

  • Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
  • A text book of Machine Design by R.S Khurmi and J.K Gupta
  • The Mechanical Design Process by David G. Ullman

There are several handbooks available for Machine Design -

  • Standard Handbook of Machine Design by Shigley

Mechanics of Machinery books

  • Theory of Machines by R.S Khurmi and J.K. Gupta
  • Mechanics of Machines : elementary theory and example : John Hannah and Richmond Courtney Stephens

Instrumentation and Measurement books

  • Theory and Design of Mechanical Measurements by Richard S. Figliola
  • Instrumentation for Process Measurement and Control by Norman A. Anderson

Power Plant Engineering books

  • Power Plant Engineering by P.K. Nag
  • Power Plant Engineering G.R. Nagpal

Refrigeration and Building Mechanical Systems books

  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Ahmadul Ameen
  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology by Bill Johnson, Bill Whiteman, John Tomczyck
  • Refrigeration by Hundi

Aerodynamics books

  • Fundamentals of Aerodynamics by John Anderson (great for fundamental knowledge)
  • Fundamentals of Flight by Richard S. Shevell

Fluidics books

  • Fluid Power with application by Anthony Esposito

Control Engineering books

  • Control Systems Engineering by Norman Nise (Best Mechanical Engineering book for control engineering.

Automobile Engineering books

  • Automotive Mechanics by William H. Crouse (great book for learning)
  • A Textbook of Automobile Engineering by R.K. Rajput

Special: Mechanical Engineering Books (pdf and hard copy) for Basic ME

The below mentioned MR books will help you to earn a basic knowledge about different topics before getting into depth.

Comprehensive Basic Mechanical Engineering by R.K. Rajput

Mechanical Engineering By Khurmi and Gupta

Basic Mechanical Enginnering By R.K Singal

Basic Mechanical Engineering By Basant Agarwal.

There are several courses on ME field. We shall update the list of ME books while adding new subjects.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting our website.

Here at CRB Tech Solutions, we offer CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must have depth on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality CAD/CAM courses.

If you are considering an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

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Fluid Mechanics Experiments and Calculations

In today’s article we shall discuss about fluid mechanics citing experiment using Pascal’s law as the underneath principle.

This article discusses the concept of simple fluid mechanics experiment and its calculation used in the marine and other fields that involve hydraulics. The experiment explained is used in gear systems that run by hydraulic steering, that is employed on ships for steering it either towards starboard or a port.

This fluid mechanics experiment is based on Pascal’s law.

Experiment:

Let’s consider a fluid system that has two cylinders of varying diameters. One cylinder larger and contains a ram which moves up and down on applying pressure. Another cylinder is smaller and has a plunger which is mobile. The larger cylinder and the smaller ones are connected by a pipe of suitable thickness in order to bear the pressure created within. The cylinders and pipe has liquid or hydraulic oil through which the pressure is transmitted.

On application of a small force on the plunger in a downward direction, a pressure is created on the liquid in contact with the plunger. This pressure is equally transmitted in all the directions and acts on the larger ram to push it.

It is noticed that movement of the plunger in the small cylinder is due to the small force applied and displaces the hydraulic fluid within. As the hydraulic fluid or oil can’t be compressed inside the cylinder, pressure will be created inside the cylinder which depends upon the applied force and diameter of the plunger. The pressure created inside the cylinder will equally act in all the directions as stated by Pascal’s law. The same pressure then acts on the ram that’s in contact with the hydraulic fluid. This will apply a force on the ram to make it move in the direction corresponding to the applied force. The force moving the ram depends on the ram diameter and the produced pressure in the hydraulic fluid owing to the applied force on the plunger. Ultimately, the force applied on the plunger is transformed into the desired movement on the ram which is the yield of the system.

An experiment using Pascal’s Law:

Calculations

    • f1 = applied force on the plunger
    • f2 = force acting on the ram
    • A1= area of the plunger
    • A2= area of the ram.
    • p = intensity of pressure as a result of f1.

Hence,

Pressure intensity created by f1 = (f1) / (A1)

According to Pascal’s law, intensity of pressure in a stable fluid is equally transmitted in all directions, so the above intensity of the pressure created by the plunger will be transmitted equally in all directions. Hence the pressure intensity on the ram is equal to the applied force on plunger f1 divided by plunger-area, A1.

Pressure intensity on ram = (f2) / (A2)

Mathematically, we get

(f1 / A1) = (f2 / A2).

Total force acting on ram, f2 = (f1 × A2) / A1

Example for the above Derivation

Let a ram of 300 mm diameter has to be moved, the diameter of the plunger is 20mm, and the applied force on the plunger is 100N.

Therefore, Force available on the ram = (Force on the plunger × Area of ram) / Plunger area

Ram area = ( 3.14×0.32 ) / 4

Ram area=0.07068 mm2

Plunger area = ( 3.14 ×.022 ) / 4

Plunger area =0.00031 mm2

Available force on ram = (100 × 0.07068 ) / 0.00031

Applied force on ram =22509.55 N

It’s clear that the applied force on the system is 100N which gets converted to 22510N (approx) which could easily operate the heavy system.

Application

The above experiment is applied in hydraulic steering gear with certain special arrangements. The steering wheel movement in a navigation bridge might help to turn the rudder towards starboard or port owing to the oil pressure that is being applied on the ram.

Hydraulic Steering Gear

Working

When wheel (1) turns anti-clockwise, the pinion (2) makes the toothed rack (3) move downwards and eventually, the toothed rack (4) upward. Being fixed with the two pistons, (5) and (6) they also moves. As the two cylinders (7) & (8) are filled with oil, piston movement yields oil pressure which is applied to the bottom of the piston (10) and moves it upward and finally forces oil in upper part of cylinder (9) up in to cylinder (8).

Piston (10) has a piston rod well connected to a slide valve (11). In the mid position, the slide valve closes the ports (12), (13), (14) in the slide valve that house (15). With piston (10) moving upward, the slide valve (11) moves along and opens port (12) and (14). These causes oil to come under the side of piston (20) and is pushed into the slide valve that house (15) and out via port (12) to the discharge tank (16). Eventually, piston (21) moves upward along with piston (20). This upward movement applies force on the tiller arm which is placed just above the rudder stock and finally causes the rudder to move.

Conclusion:

The basic principle of the experiment is that pressure intensity exerted by hydraulic fluid is equally distributed in all the directions.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting our website.

Here at CRB Tech Solutions, we offer CAD CAM certification course in Pune. If you want trainings in methods and implementation of design processes, you must get a good knowledge on the concept and the practical knowledge of the software through our quality and comprehensive CAD/CAM courses.

If you are considering an AutoCAD training course, come and join us. We will guide and support you in improving your skill in AutoCAD programs and help you grow in this field.

If you are looking for good opportunities in CAD Cam jobs, come and join our CAE Institute in Pune which offers the best training through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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