An Overview On Honing Process

It is an abrasive process that is used for finishing previously machined surfaces. It is mainly used for finishing drilled or bored holes. The tool used in the process is called as hone. Hone is a bonded abrasive stone made in the form of a stick.

The honing tool works the same way as that of the expanding reamer. These honing stones are forced away by mechanical or hydraulic pressure against the surface of the bore. Aluminium oxide, silicon carbide or diamond grains of suitable grit are bonded in vitrified bond to form the honing stones. Both the internal cylindrical and flat surfaces could be easily finished using the honing process.

There are two types of honing processes

Manual honing process

On this process a suitable quantity of coolant is used along with the honing stone and this process is called as wet process. In this process the hone is rotated and the work piece is moved front and back with the help of a hand.

Machine honing

The process of honing could be done on any type of machines such as lathes and drilling machines. Fixed type of machines does not suite the honing process. A portable small drilling machine could also be used for the process of honing by fixing a honing tool head at the place of a drill bit. These small machines will fail to yield accurate results in mass production. So a regular honing machine is to be used in order to obtain a good result. Many types of honing machines are available the most common types are explained below.

Horizontal honing machines

Longer jobs are done with the help of these machines. These machines have a horizontal spindle on which honing tool is mounted. On some machines the work piece is mounted on the table and it reciprocates to and fro. The hone rotates about its own axis and also slightly oscillates. This oscillation is controlled mechanically or hydraulically. In some cases the honing tool is mounted on a travelling head is rotated as well as reciprocated.

Vertical honing machines

These machines are found in several spindle types. The work piece is stable and the tool reciprocates. Fixtures are present to hold the work piece in correct position. Hydraulic drives are present in modern machineries to control the tool and the work piece.

Vertical types of honing machines are suitable for short jobs. These machines are widely used compared to that of the horizontal ones.

We conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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How To Do The Brake Performance Test Of Automobiles

The brake performance test of FMVSS 105 says the minimum requirements for the brake system on any vehicle driven on the road. The technician must know little about the performance test, not for the sake of being able to quote government regulations, but parts of the test define the kind of performance a brake system must deliver after servicing of the vehicle.

The brake performance test is divided into eighteen stages and begins with a new set of brakes on a test vehicle. The first stage is to install the test instruments on the vehicle and evaluate that they operate correctly. The vehicle then goes through the test called “first effectiveness test.” This test is performed with new brake linings before they have had a chance to burnish in. The vehicle creates 6 stops from 30 mph and six stops from 60 mph. At least one of the stops from 30 mph should be made in 57 feet or less and one stop from 60 mph must be in 216 feet or somewhat less. These stopping distances in other stages of the test are requirements for any vehicle of different size and weight. Remember that FMVSS 105 defines minimum brake performance. It is up to the mechanical engineers to design the vehicle and the brake system to be as per the performance standards.

While the governments sets the rules and regulations for designing and yielding, the technician must understand the ramification if a brake system is not returned to its designed capability. Failure to follow correct repair procedures could cause a vehicle accident, resulting in damage, injuries, and lawsuits. It takes less time to do it right, rather than to take a shortcut that saves time and labor in the short term but may result in much greater loss of time and money later.

Brake Service Laws and Regulations

After new vehicles are sold, the responsibility for maintaining the safe brake operation falls on the vehicle owners. The owners, in turn, completely depends on the service technician to keep the brakes in proper operating condition. Many states and provinces have laws that govern brake system operation and brake service. Some states require periodic vehicle safety inspection, either every year or every 2 years.

These safety inspections usually include at least an inspection of brake components. Some includes dynamic stopping tests, done on a brake system analyzer or on a measured course. If a vehicle fails any part of the safety inspection, its registration cannot be renewed till all defects are fixed. Some states need that a vehicle that has failed a brake test or inspection or that has been cited for unsafe brakes by a police officer can only be repaired at a state-authorized repair facility. Moreover, some states, provinces, counties, or cities have regulations for the licensing or certification of brake service technicians. Some areas have their own certification programs; others depend on Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) certification in brake service. ASE is a non-profit organization which certifies automotive technicians after a series of standard written tests.

Automotive business leaders, technicians, and academics choose and write the test questions. Working in an area that has brake service regulations, the technician will find that safety is not only essential but a good business as well. Service technicians who pass all certification needs for brake systems will get more of the service business, have more secure employment, and earn higher wages. Moreover, any technician who offers high-quality brake service could take satisfaction in knowing that he or she is contributing to drive safety.

Now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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Technical Interview Questions & Answers For Mechanical Engineering

Hollow shaft uses material strength more efficiently.
But, when weight is not a matter of concern, solid shaft is better and easy to fabricate.

  • Compared to the life of a spark plug of 2 stroke engine to the spark plug of four stroke engine is approximately
    1. Same
    2. Twice
    3. One-half
    4. One-quarter

Answer:

Twice

  • What is structurally stronger, solid steel or hollow steel?

If a solid and hollow shape has the same outer dimensions, the solid one is stronger.
The reason is that hollow ones have higher strength/weight ratio and can resist the same load with much lesser material used.

  • What will be the difference in torsion of hollow shaft & solid shaft of same outside diameter with equal load.

Compare the polar moment of inertia of the solid cross section to the hollow cross section. You’ll find that the difference between the two is equal to the polar moment of inertia of the portion removed from the hollow section.

The deflection of the shaft under a torsion load would be the product of the torsion load and the length of the shaft divided by the product of Polar Moment of inertia and modulus of rigidity of the shaft: theta=TL/JG.

  • The principle of a radiator of an engine cooling system is to:
    1. Act as water reservoir
    2. Cause heat flow by convection currents
    3. Spread out hot water over a larger area
    4. Increase air speed as it flows over the hot surface

Answer:

(3) Spread out hot water over a larger area

  • What are the units for Poisson’s ratio?

It has no unit. Since it is one quantity divided by another quantity of the same units.

  • What is the difference between Stress and Pressure?

Stress=Resistive force/Area.

Pressure=Force/Area.

Stress is “pull” force and Pressure is “push” force.

  • 1.Heat Treatment Process HRC Stands for
  • 2.Material OHNS Stands for

HRC Stands for –Rockwell Hardness C scale

OHNS Stands for — Oil Hard enable Non Shrinkage steel

  • Function of Fly wheel

Flywheel stores Kinetic Energy during the idle portion of the work cycle, and delivers the same Kinetic Energy during peak-load.

  • What material is used to make Bullet Proof Glass?

It is usually made using a strong but transparent material such as polycarbonate thermoplastic or by using layers of laminated glass. The polycarbonate layer, usually comprise of products like  Cyrolon, Lexan and Tuffak, and is often sandwiched between layers of regular glass. The use of plastic in the laminate gives impact-resistance, such as physical assault with a hammer, an axe, etc.

  • Differentiate between Performance and Efficiency?

Performance is the measure of quality of the work done by any machine. Better the quality better will be the performance of that machine. Whereas efficiency is the ratio of desired output to the required input for any machine.

Performance is the quality that a machine or plant is producing. Wwhile efficiency is the ratio of the o/p to the i/p.

  • What causes main engine black smoke?

There are many causes :

1. Its improper mixture of fuel supplies by carburettor.

2. When piston or piston ring fails.

3. Improper ignition system e.g. insufficient time of pressure rise delay period.

We conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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True Collaborative Workspace Is Beyond Adding Robots Only

This blog shall brief a discussion with George Schuster of Rockwell Automation, who says that a true collaborative workspace is more than just adding robots.

The term collaborative in automation largely meant the implementation of safe robots into the workspace. But they at Machine Design, they’ve covered the future of collaborative robots in depth.

Due to a lack of skilled labourers, there could be a shortage of 3.5 million workers in the years up to 2025. Two million of those jobs are likely be unfilled due to the lack of skills, and with the current workforce owing to retire soon, it is predicted that 2.7 million professionals will exit the manufacturing workplace by the year 2025. To overcome this labour gap, there will be an increase of automation and robotics. The Boston Consulting Group says that 25% of all labour will be performed by automated and robotic systems by 2025. However, George Schuster says these enhances in automation will be more than implementing robotic solutions. They will focus mainly on increasing the collaborative work environment.

Schuster has 34 years of work experience in the engineering industry. Beginning with General Motors prior to his work with Rockwell Automation, he has earned experience in conveyor systems, safety applications, welding and joining technology, as well as a background in automation and robotics. According to Schuster, the advance in safety technology has designed a new workspace and is basically changing the way people and machines could interact. Factory design would intentionally separate machines and robots from human works to ensure safety. As Schuster says, the contact between the equipment and the human could be more intimate. Before you had the robot dance, where one has to alter the path of the robot to avoid the person. The novel innovations are opening up an new range of application possibilities that were simply not possible previously.

The main reason of this collaboration is the development of new standards and tools. The increase and affordability of sensors, laser scanners, and vision cameras have created products that are quite safer. With these sensing technologies now integrated into machine control systems, you can develop a complete work unit that is a true shared space with the machine. They permit safety engineers to evaluate the risks and hazards, and provide more formalized language on how people and machines interact. But that doesn’t mean that safer machines mean that there is no longer a need for risk assessments. Schuster says that formal safety analysis is needed and these safety technologies are just tools; there are still several pieces needed to completely integrate the safety.

When asked about the hopes people will learn about this, he summarised two main talking points: the advantages and the limitations. The advantage is that these new collaborative applications could increase efficiency, strengths of the machine, and help the worker. The disadvantage is that users should not think that these new safer machines cannot hurt you. Engineering is yet needed to perform safety analysis and risk assessment. Any time technology could make people better, keeping in mind that people are still important cogs in the process of manufacturing.

Now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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CAD Mechanical Drawings In Association with Design Process

As a CAD professional you must develop standard mechanical engineering drawings such that it could be easily interpreted by the engineer. Before you begin working on mechanical drawings, you must know how to use common mechanical symbols correctly. You must take special care while relating various mechanical components design drawings to an overall assembly plan.

The essential types of CAD mechanical drawings associated with design process are:

1. General Arrangement

2. Detail

3. Fabrication

4. Assembly

General Arrangement Drawings:

This drawing offers complete information necessary to generate layout, transportation and installation drawings for the mechanical components. It also includes among a many a list of arrangement drawings which contains all the dimensions, equipment weight, details of installation & service delivery details.

Detail Drawings

All individual members of mechanical equipment must be depicted in detail to ensure that they are fabricated in accordance with the design needs, codes and standards. These drawings contain surface texture, geometry, material, size & geometric tolerances etc. The detail drawing also has all the necessary information required for procurement, manufacturing and regulatory compliance.

Fabrication Drawings:

This type of drawings is virtual assembly drawing which has a list of parts and materials needed for fabrication. The fabrication drawing at times also includes referenced documents for heat treatment and stress relieving needs, geometric tolerances and final machining details.

Assembly Drawings:

Assembly drawings has drawings of discrete sub-systems, assembly details of how the components, roller drawings, gearbox drawings, and guard system drawings. It will include parts list that identifies all of the member details with materials, qualities, quantities and supply details.

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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An Overview On mechanical Testing

The parameter to measure a material’s strength is to do a tensile test. It’s a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides unless the sample changes its shape or breaks. It’s is a common and important test that gives a variety of information about the material being tested, which includes elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and strength of the material. Tensile tests are commonly done on substances like metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics.

Tensile testing systems use a number of different units of measurement.

This device is used on Tensile or Universal testing machines to find out Proof stress & Young’s modulus values. In case of any brittle materials like high carbon steels, light aluminium & magnesium alloys, it is tough to get yield values.

Tensile testing at elevated temperature.

High temperature tensile testing is a method to test the properties of a material at above room temperature. It will state the following parameters:

  • Tensile strength
  • Yield strength
  • Elongation
  • Lowering of area

Specialist testing, measurement and control device is needed to perform this test.
The results of such a test will provide a good indication of the static load bearing capacity of the material and therefore establishes the suitability of a material for its intended purpose.

Tensile test on Tor steel Bars

TOR steel is the best grade of steel used in concrete reinforcement. It’s a kind of high adherence steel. Other types of steel are used for lesser resistance concrete. Thermo mechanically Treated (TMT) bars are a type of corrosion resistant steel bar used in concrete construction.

Bend test on plates

A bend test is used to see whether a specific piece of metal will break or fracture on applied pressure. This is important in the construction of any project using metal; otherwise the building or the item being made would collapse from the immense pressure exerted on it. Every piece of metal made cannot be tested, therefore certain pieces are tested and if they clear the test, the other pieces are made using the same process. The results of a bend test are reported differently depending on the type of material tested. There is no standard method.

The bend test measures a metal’s ductility. Copper and steel are two metals that have high ductility and performs well under pressure.

Bend test on pipes

This is carried out to make sure that a metal is sufficiently ductile to stand bending without any fractures.

Bend Test on Tor steel

The reason is to ensure that the weld and the base metal are fused properly, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone have proper mechanical properties

Re-Bend test on Tor steel

This is done to measure the effect of strain on steel. Strain ageing takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel.

Nick Break Test

This is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects, like slag inclusions, gas pockets, lesser fusion, and  oxidized  or burnt metal. To do the test for checking a butt weld, one must first flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld.

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses

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Reverse Engineering (RE)

Reverse Engineering (RE)

Reverse Engineering is the process of duplication of an existing component, or product, without the help of drawings, documentation, or any computer model.

Why RE is needed?

  • The original manufacturer no longer produces the product
  • Inadequate documentation of the original design
  • The original manufacturer no longer exists, but a customer needs the product
  • The original design documentation has been lost or never existed
  • Some bad features of a product need to be designed out.
  • To strengthen the good features of a product based on long-term usage of the product
  • To analyze the good and bad features of competitors’ product
  • To find out new avenues to enhance product performance and features
  • To gain methods to understand a competitor’s products and develop better products
  • The original CAD model is not sufficient to support modifications or current manufacturing methods
  • The original equipment manufacturers are either not willing or unable to supply replacement parts, or demand inflated costs for sole-source parts

Process Of Reverse Engineering:

  • To find out system’s components and their relationships
  • Create representations of the system in another form or a higher level of abstraction
  • Create physical representation of that system

Important Points To remember :

RE enables the duplication of an existing part by capturing the component’s dimensions, attributes, and material properties. Before attempting RE, a life-cycle analysis and cost analysis must be conducted. Reverse engineering is typically cost effective only if the items to be reverse engineered reflect a high investment or will be reproduced in large quantities.

Product Development By CAD Integrated RE Concepts:

Reverse engineering of mechanical parts involves acquiring 3D position data in the point cloud using laser scanners or CT scan. Representing geometry of the part in terms of surface points is the first step in creating parametric surface patches. A good polymesh is developed from the point cloud using RE software. The cleaned-up polymesh, NURBS (Non-uniform rational B-spline) curves, or NURBS surfaces are exported to CAD packages for further refinement, analysis, and generation of cutter tool paths for CAM. Finally, the CAM produces the physical part.

Services:

  • Contact & Laser Scanning
  • Deviation Analysis of physical part with CAD Model
  • Dimensional Inspection & Validation

Components Of RE:

  • Digitizing or Scanning Hardware
  • CAD Software for Design
  • CAD Integrated Reverse Engineering Software plug-in.

Reverse Engineering Software:

 RapidformXO Redesign:

Helps creating parametric CAD models from real world parts fast and easy by utilizing a design process and user interface that are very familiar to CAD users.

Geomagic Studio:

This transforms 3D scan data and polygon meshes into accurate 3D digital models.

RevWorks:

RevWorks® enhances the state of the art for CAD-Driven Reverse Engineering™. In linking SolidWorks to the 3D digitizer or coordinate measuring machine (CMM), RevWorks opens the door to greatly enhance productivity.

DezignWorks:

The standard in RE for SolidWorks, allow users to create complex 2D and 3D shapes, with a Romer, Faro, Baces, or MicroScribe Digitizer/Portable CMM.

Rhinoceros NURBS Modeling for Windows:

Rhino can develop, edit, analyze, and translate NURBS curves, surfaces, and solids in Windows and offers full support for all 3D Digitizers and Portable CMMs.

Reverse Engineering Inspection Software:

 MobiGage

Installed on an Apple iPhone or iPod touch, this uses wireless communication to manage data collection from one or more MicroScribes linked to a MobiBox Silver interface 

PowerINSPECT from Delcam

This leads the way in today’s market by delivering a complete CAD-based inspection solution.

RapidformXO/Verifier

An ideal solution for inspecting parts with a 3D scanner.

Geomagic Qualify

Geomagic Qualify enables fast, accurate, graphical comparisons between digital reference models and as-built parts for first-article inspection, production inspection and supplier quality

Applications Of RE:

RE is very common in such diverse fields as entertainment, software engineering, automotive, consumer products, microchips, chemicals, electronics, and mechanical designs. E.g. when a new machine comes to market, manufacturers who are competing, might buy one machine and disassemble it to learn how it was built and how it functions. A chemical company might use RE to defeat a patent on a competitor’s yield process. In civil engineering, bridge and building designs are copied from past successes so there will be less chance of catastrophic failure. In software engineering, good source code is mostly a variation of other nicer source code.

Reverse engineering compresses product development times. By using reverse engineering, a 3D product or model could be quickly captured in a digital form, re-modeled, and exported for rapid prototyping/tooling or rapid manufacturing.

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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Drawing Orthographic Views In AutoCAD

An orthographic Projection is also called a blueprint. In this blog we will not be concerned with a number of the rules that governs a drawing for a detailed drafting class, but we will help the students recognize, prepare and make them able to read a simple mechanical drawing.

The best way to learn the parts and layout of a mechanical drawing is to design one with a pencil and paper.  Following the steps given below, the students can draw out a simple shape on paper and complete the drawing.

  1. Put the paper in landscape mode, long dimensional with left and right.
  2. Select the front view by noting the instructions for front view.
  3. Draw the front view on the lower left of the paper. The front view is the base view, with all other views aligned to it.  Draw the front view to scale using construction lines, object lines and making sure all lines are straight and neat.
  4. Draw the top view above the front view.  Extend the construction lines for the front view up to the area of the top view. The left side of the top view must exactly line up with the left side of the front view. This also applies to the right side. Finish the top view.
  5. Draw the side view to the right of the Front View.  Extend the construction lines of the top and bottom of the front view to the right to the location of the Side View.  Now finish the side view. 
  6. If required, you could arrange the drawing to show other views such as the bottom, left side and a section viewc as well. 
  7. If time allows, the student might elect to create an isometric view.  This is basically placed in the upper right corner.  Lower scale is acceptable.
  8. After the views are complete, the student will then add extension lines and dimension lines. Dimension lines show the actual size of the object.  The inch symbol “ is usually omitted for this type of drawing.  If necessary, leader lines would be added to include additional information such as diameters of holes, radius of a curve or other important notes for the fabricator.
  9. The student will then proceed to add a border to the drawing using a thick solid line approx. 3/8 inches from the edge of the paper. 

Next the student will add a title block to their drawing.  This is typically in the lower right corner of the paper, touching the border line in this area.  The heading would show the name of the Orginization or Company, the name of the drawing, the person’s name who prepared the drawing and possibly the date and revision.

To complete, any extraneous marks like unused construction lines must be erased

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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The Future of Robotics

Robotics is the near future. This article explains the future of robotics, including their usage at home, factories, hospitals and biomimetics. Currently it appears more like fiction, but in the next few decades all this will become fact.

Engineers and scientists anticipate that in the near future robots will be seen generally at numerous establishments, that includes production units, farming, hospitals, maintenance, construction, and in homes. Robots will be able to substitute for individuals in most factories where tasks of extra precision are necessary and production rate is important, which is difficult to be performed correctly manually.

General Usage Of Robots

International experts on robotics says that by year 2020, robots will be capable of observing and performing tasks, speaking, and will possess aptitude and intellect. The association of human beings with robots will be an ordinary thing and usual. In the near future, robots will not be a a complex machine, but equipment or machinery to be utilized in everyday life, assisting in moving of disabled or injured people, working in industries, etc.

Robotic Surgery

Doctors vision that in the near future advanced robots will be used to assist in long distance medical treatment including diagnosis, surgery, and other medical treatments. This will aide the treatment to be carried out in a shorter time, and it might not be necessary for the patients to travel long distances, which currently might even involve travelling from one continent to another. Robots might also assist in carrying out minor medical treatments, instead of prescribing a pill for certain ailments, a small robot might be introduced in the blood, which would sense the reason of ailment, and subsequently arrange appropriate medicines in the affected parts of the body.

Improvements In Human Brain

Robots would be introduced into parts of human beings, like intellectual insertion in the brain, which would enhance memory and improve ideas in the mind. Nano robots will even be injected into the blood to wash and scrub blood vessels. The human mind in assistance of robotic brains will be able to perform trillion of commands per second.

Robots In Biomimetics

The next idea for modern robots will be biomimetics, an area which will focus on the manufacture of equipments that obtain guidance from the environment as motivation for their looks and attitude. Currently broad researches are being carried out in this field.

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

Are you looking for CAD CAM certification in Pune? Well if you want to do CAD training courses, then our CRB Tech Solutions has a nice name in this field for you to take up for enhancing your skill in AutoCAD programs and grow in your career. Our CAD CAM courses are much upgraded and our CAD CAM institute has earned a niche for itself.

We also offer mechanical design engineer courses with our a well structured program in view of offering CAD CAM training for mechanical engineering students

So if you are looking good opportunities for CAD Cam jobs, join our CAE Institute in Pune which gives the best CAD training courses through our mechanical design engineering courses.

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Simple Fluid Mechanics Experiments and Calculations

This article tells you the concept of a simple fluid mechanics experiment and its calculation as its application in the marine field and other fields involving hydraulics. This simple fluid mechanics experiment is based on the principle of Pascal’s law.

Fluid Mechanics Experiment:

Let there be a fluid system consisting of two cylinders of different diameters. One cylinder is of larger diameter and contains a ram in it that can be moved up and down. Another cylinder is of smaller and contains a plunger that can move as well. The large cylinder and small cylinder are connected by a pipe of suitable thickness in order to withstand the pressure created inside. The cylinders and pipe contain liquid or hydraulic oil via which pressure can be transmitted.

On application of a small force on the plunger in a downward direction, a pressure is produced on the liquid in contact with the plunger. This pressure is transmitted equally in all the directions and acts on the large cylinder ram to move it.

It is observed that the movement of the plunger in the small cylinder due to the small force applied displaces the hydraulic fluid in it. Since the hydraulic fluid or oil cannot be compressed, pressure builds up inside the cylinder which depends upon the force applied and the size of the plunger. The pressure created inside the cylinder will act equally in all directions as stated by pascal’s law. The same pressure acts on the ram that is in contact with the hydraulic fluid. This will exert a force on the ram and moves the ram in the desired direction. The force which that moves the ram depend on the diameter of the ram and the pressure developed in the hydraulic fluid due to the force applied manually on the plunger. Finally, the force applied manually on the plunger is converted into the desired motion on the ram which is the system output.

Let’s consider this experiment using Pascal’s Law

Calculations Related to above Experiment

  • Let f1 be the force applied on the plunger
  • f2 be the force acting on the ram
  • Let A1 be the area of the plunger
  • A2 be the area of the ram
  • p will be the intensity of pressure produced by the force f1

Therefore

Pressure intensity produced by the force f1 = (force applied on the plunger f1) / (area of the plunger A1)

As per Pascal’s law, the pressure intensity in a static fluid is transmitted equally in all directions, so the above intensity of pressure produced by the plunger will be equally transmitted in all directions. Therefore the pressure intensity at the ram will be equal to the force applied on the plunger f1 divided by area of the plunger A1.

Also pressure intensity on the ram = (force acting on ram f2) / (area of the ram A2).

Equating the pressure intensity on the ram, we get

(f1 / A1) = (f2 / A2).

The total force acting on the ram f2 = (force applied on the plunger f1 × area of the ram A2) / area of the plunger A1

Example for the above Derivation

Let us consider a ram with 300 mm diameter to be moved, the diameter of plunger is 20mm, and the force applied on the plunger is 100N.

Next the Force available at the ram = (Force applied on the plunger × Area of the ram) / Area of the plunger

Area of the ram = ( 3.14×0.32 ) / 4

Area of the ram=0.07068 mm2

Area of the plunger or piston = ( 3.14 ×.022 ) / 4

Area of the plunger or piston =0.00031 mm2

Force available at the ram = (100 × 0.07068 ) / 0.00031

Force available at the ram =22509.55 N

From the above example, it is proved that the force applied manually on the system is only 100N and which gets converted to 22510N and can be able to operate the heavy system that cannot be operated manually.

Application

The above explained simple experiment is used in hydraulic steering gear. The small movement of the steering wheel in the navigation bridge might actuate the rudder to turn towards starboard or port side due to oil pressure acting on the ram.

Hydraulic Steering Gear

Working

When wheel 1 is turned anticlockwise, the pinion 2 moves the toothed rack 3 downward and moves the toothed rack 4 upward. As it is fixed to the two pistons 5 and 6, the piston also moves correspondingly. As these two cylinders 7 & 8 are filled with oil, the movement of the pistons yields in oil pressure being applied to the bottom of the piston 10 and moves it upward and these forces the oil in upper part of cylinder 9 up in to the cylinder 8.

Piston 10 has a piston rod connected to a slide valve 11. In its middle position, the slide valve just closes the ports 12, 13, 14 in the slide valve housing 15. As the piston 10 moves upward, the slide valve 11 moves along with it and opens port 12 and 14. These results oil from the pressure vessel to come under side of the piston 20 and the oil above piston 20 is forced in to the slide valve housing 15 and out through the port 12 to the discharge tank 16. As a result the piston 21 moves upward along with the piston 20 since both these piston are connected together by piston rod. These upward movements of the two pistons impart movement to the tiller arm which is mounted on the rudder stock and hence moves the rudder.

So now we conclude the discussion. Keep looking for this space for the second part.

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