In abrasive jet machining or AJM process, steam of focused abrasive particles carried with high pressure gas or air at a good velocity of about 150 to 300 m/sec is made to touch on the work surface via a nozzle, and the work material get removed by erosion by the high velocity abrasive particles. The nozzle’s inside diameter (ID) through which abrasive particles flow is about 0.18 to 0.80 mm and the distance between nozzle tip and workpiece is kept about 0.3 to 20.0 mm.
The process could be easily controlled to change the metal removal rate. This process is well suited for machining super alloys and also machining thin sections of very hard materials and making intricate holes.
When grinding particle with sharp edges hit a fragile material in a high speed, it creates dent into the material and lodges a small particle from it by a tiny brittle fracture. The lodged out or wear particle is carried away by air or gas.
Abrasive Jet Machining Principles
The gap between nozzle tip and work surface has great influence on the diameter of cut, its shape and size and also rate of material removal. It is clear that the SOD or stand off distance, changes the spread of abrasive particles on the working surface and increases the diameter of the cut.
The basic Units of AJM
It has a gas supply system (compressor), filter, mixing chamber, pressure regulator, nozzle assembly and the work holding device. In the mixing chamber, the abrasive is allowed to flow into the gas stream. The mixing ratio is controlled by a vibrator. The feed motion can be put either to the work holding device or to the nozzle.
A process quite suitable for machining brittle, heat resistant and fragile materials like, ceramic,glass, germanium, etc.
It could be used to cut, drill, polish, debur, clean the materials.
The surface damage is very little.
Holes of intricate shapes can be produced.
A material’s removal rate is low.
The tapering of hole mainly when the depth of the hole is more, becomes inevitable.
It need a dust collecting chamber to prevent air pollution
The abrasive particles might remain embedded into work surface.
Abrasive particles are not reusable.
AJM is best suited for machining heat sensitive and brittle materials.
It is used to drill holes, cut slots, clean hard surfaces, polish etc.
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